• Manifest latent nystagmus (MLN) was identified in 31 patients by accurate eye movement records. All the patients had horizontal tropias, and the nystagmus fast phases were always in the direction of the viewing eye. The slow phases of MLN are decreasing-velocity exponentials while those of the jerk form of congenital nystagmus (CN) are increasing-velocity exponentials. Several subjects who were believed to have latent nystagmus (LN) on clinical examination had small amplitude nystagmus evident by eye movement recording with both eyes open; these were actually cases of MLN. Many patients with MLN are misdiagnosed as having CN. An explanation for MLN and LN is provided based on confusion of egocentric directions between monocular and binocular viewing conditions.
Dell'Osso LF, Schmidt D, Daroff RB. Latent, Manifest Latent, and Congenital Nystagmus. Arch Ophthalmol. 1979;97(10):1877-1885. doi:10.1001/archopht.1979.01020020325008