[Skip to Content]
[Skip to Content Landing]
October 1984

Hyperthermic Treatment of Intraocular Tumors

Author Affiliations

From the Medical Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (Drs Finger and Packer and Mr Svitra); the David Sarnoff Research Center, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, NJ (Mr Paglione); and the Howe Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston (Drs Chess and Albert).

Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102(10):1477-1481. doi:10.1001/archopht.1984.01040031197017

• A 5.8-gigahertz (GHz) ophthalmic microwave applicator was used to treat choroidal melanoma (Greene strain) in rabbits. High-frequency electromagnetic radiation provides a favorable dose distribution to induce local hyperthermia in the treatment of intraocular tumors. Heating of the neoplasm, while sparing normal ocular structures, is best accomplished by a transscleral approach. A hyperthermia plaque is placed on the sclera at the base of the intraocular tumor. Contact (resistive) heating and electromagnetic radiation (radiofrequency and microwave) are best suited to a plaque technique. The advantages of electromagnetic heat induction, as compared with contact heating, are twofold: the depth of hyperthermic penetration can be modulated by frequency selection, and the tissues with low water content (sclera) remain relatively unaffected by microwaves. The 5.8-GHz ophthalmic microwave applicator satisfies the requirements for local hyperthermic treatment of intraocular tumors.

Busch W:  Über den Einfluss welche heftigere Erysipeln zuweileg auf organisierte Neubildelungen ausüben . Verhandl Naturh Preuss Rhein Westphal 1866;23:28-30.
Fehleisen R: Die Ätiologie des Erysipels . Berlin, T Fischer Verlag, 1883, p 38.
Coley WB:  The therapeutic value of the mixed toxins of the streptococcus of erysipelas and Bacillus prodigeosus in the treatment of inoperable malignant tumors . Am J Med Sci 1896;112:251-281.Article
Westermark F:  Über die Behandlung des ulcerirenden Cervixcarcinomas, Mittel konstanter Wärme . Centralbl Gynak 1898;49:1335-1539.
Gottschalk S:  Zur Behandlung des ulcerirenden inoperablen Cervixcarcinomas . Centralbl Gynak 1899;23:78-80.
Rohdenberg GL:  Fluctuations in the growth of malignant tumors in man, with special reference to spontaneous recession . J Cancer Res 1918;3:193-225.
Overgaard J, Suit HD, Walker AM:  Multifractional hyperthermia treatment of malignant and normal tissue in vivo . Cancer Res 1980; 40:2045-2050.
Conner WG, Gerner EW, Miller RC, et al:  Prospects for hyperthermia in human cancer therapy . Radiology 1977;123:497-503.Article
Overgaard K, Overgaard J:  Hyperthermic tumor-cell devitalization in vivo . Acta Radiol Ther 1977;16:1-16.Article
Hofer KG, Mivechi NF:  Tumor cell sensitivity to hyperthermia as a function of extracellular and intracellular pH . JNCI 1980;65:621-625.
Mondavi B, Strom R, Rotilio G, et al:  The biochemical mechanism of selective heat sensitivity of cancer cells: I. Studies on cellular respiration. II. Studies on nucleic acid and protein synthesis . Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1969;5:129-136, 137-146.
Song CW, Kang MS, Rhee SG, et al:  Effect of hyperthermia on vascular function in normal and neoplastic tissues . Ann NY Acad Sci 1980; 335:35-47.Article
Vaupel P:  Hypoxia in neoplastic tissue . Microvasc Res 1977;13:399-408.Article
Overgaard J, Suit HD:  Time-temperature relationship in hyperthermic treatment of malignant and normal tissue in vivo . Cancer Res 1979;39:3248-3253.
Kim JH, Hahn EW, Ahmen SA:  Combination of hyperthermia and radiation therapy for malignant melanoma . Cancer 1982;50:478-482.Article
Marmor JB, Hahn GM:  Combined radiation and hyperthermia in superficial human tumors . Cancer 1980;46:1986-1991.Article
Joseph CD, Astrahan M, Lipsett J, et al:  Interstitial hyperthermia and interstitial iridium-192 implantation: A technique and preliminary results . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1981;7:827-833.Article
Packer S, Rotman M:  Radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma with iodine-125 . Ophthalmology 1980;87:587-590.
Packer S, Rotman M, Salanitro P: Iodine125 radiation of choroidal melanoma: Clinical experience. Ophthalmology, in press.
Char DH, Castro JR:  Helium ion therapy for choroidal melanoma . Arch Ophthalmol 1982; 100:935-938.Article
Gragoudas ES, Goitein M, Verhey L, et al:  Proton beam irradiation of uveal melanomas: Results of 5 ½-year study . Arch Ophthalmol 1982; 100:928-934.Article
Shields JA, Augsburger JJ, Brady LW, et al:  Cobalt plaque therapy of posterior uveal melanomas . Ophthalmology 1982;89:1201-1207.Article
Babbs CF, De Witt DP:  Physical principles of local heat therapy for cancer . Med Instrum 1981;15:367-373.
Hand JW, ter Haar G:  Heating techniques in hyperthermia: I. Introduction and assessment of techniques . Br J Radiol 1981;54:433-436.Article
Stuchley MA, Stuchley SS:  Dielectric properties of biological substances—tabulated . J Microwave Power 1980;15:19-26.
Schwan HP, Carstensen EL, Li K:  Heating of fat-muscle layers by electromagnetic and ultrasonic diathermy . Am Inst Elec Eng Trans 1953;72:483-488.
Johnson CC, Guy AW:  Non-ionizing electromagnetic wave effects in biological materials and systems . Proc IEEE 1972;60:692-718.Article
Greene HS:  A spontaneous melanoma in the hamster with a propensity for amelanotic alteration and sarcomatous transformation during transplantation . Cancer Res 1958;18:422-425.
Krohn DL, Brandt R, Morris DN, et al:  Subchoroidal transplantation of experimental malignant melanoma . Am J Ophthalmol 1970; 70:753-756.
Liu LH, Albert DM, Dohlman HG, et al:  Metastasis in a rabbit choroidal melanoma model . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1982;22:115-118.
Mitzutani U, Massalski TB, McGinness JE, et al:  Low temperature specific heat anomalies in melanins and tumor melanosomes . Nature 1976; 259:505-507.Article
Stehlin J, Giovanella B, de Ipolyi P, et al:  Results of 11 years of experience with heated perfusion for melanoma of the extremities . Cancer Res 1979;39:2255-2257.
Hahn G:  Potential for therapy of drugs and hyperthermia . Cancer Res 1979;39:2264-2268.
Weinstein JN, Magin RL, Yatvin MD, et al:  Liposomes and local hyperthermia: Selective delivery of methotrexate to heated tumors . Science 1979;204:188-191.Article
Manning MR, Cetas TC, Miller RC, et al:  Clinical hyperthermia: Results of a phase 1 trial employing hyperthermia alone or in combination with external beam or interstitial radiotherapy . Cancer 1982;49:205-216.Article
Finger PT, Packer S, Albert DM:  The effect of hyperthermia on the normal rabbit eye . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1982;22( (suppl) ):8.
Paglione RW, Sterzer F, Mendecki J, et al:  Microwave applicators for localized hyperthermia treatment of malignant tumors . IEEE MTT-S Int Microwave Symp Digest 1980; pp 351-354.
Lagendijk JJ:  A microwave heating technique for the hyperthermic treatment of tumors of the eye, especially retinoblastoma . Phys Med Biol 1982;27:1313-1324.Article
Lagendijk JJ: Microwave Applicator for Hyperthermic Treatment of Retinoblastoma , National Cancer Institute monograph 61, Third International Symposium, Cancer Therapy by Hyperthermia, Drugs, and Radiation. National Cancer Institute, 1980, pp 469-471.
Lele PP:  Induction of deep, local hyperthermia by ultrasound and electromagnetic fields . Radiat Environ Biophys 1980;17:205-217.Article
Finger PT, Packer S, Svitra P, et al:  A 5.8 GHz ophthalmic microwave applicator for treatment of choroidal melanoma . IEEE MTT-S Int Microwave Symp Digest 1983; pp 177-180.
Beard RE, Magin RL, Frizzell LA, et al:  An annular forces ultrasonic lens for local hyperthermia treatment of small tumors . Ultrasound Med Biol 1982;8:177-184.Article
Munro P, Hill RP, Hunt JW:  The development of improved ultrasound heaters suitable for superficial tissue heating . Med Phys 1982;9:888-897.Article