[Skip to Content]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address 54.147.241.171. Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
[Skip to Content Landing]
Article
February 1992

Treatment of Cytomegalovirus Retinitis—1992

Author Affiliations

Baltimore, Md

Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110(2):185-187. doi:10.1001/archopht.1992.01080140041022

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.

Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most frequent opportunistic ocular infection in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),1-6 and, when left untreated, ultimately leads to blindness.4 Approximately 20% of patients with AIDS develop CMV retinitis at some time in their lives.1-5 With the advent of the AIDS epidemic,7 there may be as many as 20 000 to 30 000 new cases of CMV retinitis in the United States in 1992.

See also pp 188 and 255.

Two drugs have been approved for the treatment of CMV retinitis: ganciclovir (Cytovene, Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, Calif)4,6,8-13 and foscarnet (Foscavir, Astra Pharmaceutical Products Inc, Westborough, Mass).14-17 Ganciclovir's investigational use began in 1984; it received approval from the Food and Drug Administration in 1989. The only form of ganciclovir approved for use is the intravenous one. The initial, 2-week, high-dose induction therapy is begun to control the

References
1.
Holland GN, Pepose JS, Pettit TH, Gottlieb MS, Yee RD, Foos RY.  Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: ocular manifestations . Ophthalmology . 1983;90:859-873.Article
2.
Palestine AG, Rodrigues MM, Macher AM, et al.  Ophthalmic involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Ophthalmology . 1984;91:1092-1099.Article
3.
Schuman JS, Orellana J, Friedman AH, Teich SA.  Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) . Surv Ophthalmol . 1987;31:384-410.Article
4.
Jabs DA, Enger C, Bartlett JG.  Cytomegalovirus retinitis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:75-80.Article
5.
Jabs DA, Green WR, Fox R, Polk BF, Bartlett JG.  Ocular manifestations of acquired immune deficiency syndrome . Ophthalmology . 1989;96:1092-1099.Article
6.
Gross JG, Bozzette SA, Mathews WC, et al.  Longitudinal study of cytomegalovirus retinitis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome . Ophthalmology . 1990;97:681-686.Article
7.
Centers for Disease Control.  HIV prevalence estimates in AIDS case projections for the United States: report based upon a workshop . MMWR . 1990;39( (suppl) ):1S-31S.
8.
Collaborative DHPG Treatment Study Group.  Treatment of serious cytomegalovirus infections with 9-(1,3-dihyroxy-2-propoxymethyl) guanine in patients with AIDS and other immunodeficiencies . N Engl J Med . 1986;314:801-805.Article
9.
Holland GN, Sidikaro Y, Kreiger AE, et al.  Treatment of cytomegalovirus retinopathy with ganciclovir . Ophthalmology . 1987;94:815-823.Article
10.
Jabs DA, Newman C, de Bustros S, Polk BF.  Treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis with ganciclovir . Ophthalmology . 1987;94:824-830.Article
11.
Laskin OL, Cederberg DM, Mills J, et al.  Ganciclovir for the treatment and suppression of serious infections caused by cytomegalovirus . Am J Med . 1987;83:201-207.Article
12.
Henderly DE, Freeman WR, Causey DM, Rao NA.  Cytomegalovirus retinitis and response to therapy with ganciclovir . Ophthalmology . 1987;94:425-434.Article
13.
Orellana J, Teich SA, Friedman AH, Lerebours F, Winterkorn J, Mildvan D.  Combined short- and long-term therapy for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis using ganciclovir (BW B759U) . Ophthalmology . 1987;94:831-838.Article
14.
Walmsley SL, Chew E, Read SE, et al.  Treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis with trisodium phosphonoformate hexahydrate (foscarnet) . J Infect Dis . 1988;157:569-572.Article
15.
LeHoang P, Girard B, Robinet M, et al.  Foscarnet in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome . Ophthalmology . 1989;96:865-873.Article
16.
Jacobson MA, O'Donnell JJ, Mills J.  Foscarnet treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Antimicrob Agents Chemother : 1989;33:736-741.Article
17.
Palestine AG, Polis MA, De Smet MD, et al.  A randomized, controlled trial of foscarnet in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS . Ann Intern Med . 1991;115:665-673.Article
18.
DeArmond B.  Future directions in the management of cytomegalovirus infections . J AIDS . 1991;4( (suppl) ):S53-S56.
19.
Hochster H, Dieterich D, Bozzette S, et al.  Toxicity of combined ganciclovir and zidovudine for cytomegalovirus disease associated with AIDS . Ann Intern Med . 1990;113:111-117.Article
20.
Collier AC, Bozzette S, Coombs RW, et al.  A pilot study of lowdose zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus infection . N Engl J Med . 1990;323:1015-1021.Article
21.
Henry K, Cantrill HL, Fletcher C, Chinnock BJ, Balfour HH.  Use of intravitreal ganciclovir (dihydroxy propoxymethyl guanine) for cytomegalovirus retinitis in a patient with AIDS . Am J Ophthalmol . 1987;103:17-23.
22.
Cantrill HL, Henry K, Melroe H, Knoblock WH, Ramsay RC, Balfour HH.  Treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis with intravitreal ganciclovir: long-term results . Ophthalmology . 1989;96:367-374.Article
23.
Ussery FM III, Gibson SR, Conklin RH, Piot DF, Stool EW, Conklin AJ.  Intravitreal ganciclovir in the treatment of AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus retinitis . Ophthalmology . 1989;95:640-648.Article
24.
Heinemann MH.  Long-term intravitreal ganciclovir therapy for cytomegalovirus retinopathy . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:1767-1772.Article
25.
Cochereau-Massin I, LaHoang P, Lautier-Frau M, et al.  Efficacy and tolerance of intravitreal ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus retinitis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome . Ophthalmology . 1991;98:1348-1355.Article
26.
Grossberg HS, Bonnem EM, Buhles WC Jr.  GM-CSF with ganciclovir for the treatment of CMV retinitis in AIDS . N Engl J Med . 1989;320:1560.
27.
Studies of Ocular Complications of AIDS Research Group in collaboration with the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Studies of Ocular Complications of AIDS foscarnet-ganciclovir cytomegalovirus retinitis trial, 1: rationale, design, and methods. Controlled Clin Trials. In press.
28.
Studies of Ocular Complications of AIDS Research Group in collaboration with the AIDS Clinical Trials Group.  Mortality in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated with either foscarnet or ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus retinitis . N Engl J Med . 1992;326:213-220.Article
29.
Smith TJ, Pearson PA, Blandford DL, et al.  Intravitreal sustained-release ganciclovir . Arch Ophthalmol . 1992;110:255-258.Article
30.
Sanborn GE, Anand R, Torti RE, et al.  Sustained-release ganciclovir therapy for treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis: use of an intravitreal device . Arch Ophthalmol . 1992;110:188-195.Article
31.
Jabs DA, Enger C, Haller J, deBustros S.  Retinal detachments in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis . Arch Ophthalmol . 1991;109:794-799.Article
32.
Polsky B, Wolitz R, Cantrill H, et al. Intravitreal ganciclovir salvage therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis (ACTG 085): a preliminary report. In: Abstracts of the 7th International Conference on AIDS; June 19-22,1991; Florence, Italy. WB 2340.
33.
Kotler DP, Culpepper-Morgan JA, Tierney AR, Klein EB.  Treatment of disseminated cytomegalovirus infection with 9-(1,3 dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl) guanine . AIDS Res . 1986;2:299-308.Article
34.
Holland GN, Sisen RF, Jatulis DE, et al.  Survival of patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome after development of cytomegalovirus retinopathy . Ophthalmology . 1990;97:204-211.Article
×