[Skip to Content]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address 54.211.41.181. Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
[Skip to Content Landing]
Article
June 1992

Recognizing Child Abuse

Author Affiliations

Boston, Mass

Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110(6):766-768. doi:10.1001/archopht.1992.01080180038025

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.

Abstract

In 1986, the Study of National Incidence and Prevalence of Child Abuse and Neglect estimated that 300 000 children are physically abused, 140 000 are sexually abused, and 700 000 are neglected or maltreated each year in the United States. This leads to at least 1100 deaths annually.1 Approximately 15% of abused children suffer permanent physical abnormalities, while emotional deficits and learning problems are found in almost all of these children.2

BATTERED-CHILD SYNDROME  In 1946, Caffey3 described the unusual association of chronic subdural hematomas and long-bone fractures in infants. The traumatic nature of this syndrome was emphasized in 1953 by Silverman,4 who noted that a history of trauma could often be elicited from parents of these infants. Not until 1962, however, did the cause of this phenomenon become nationally recognized by the medical community. In that year, Kempe and coworkers5 coined the term battered-child syndrome

References
1.
Sedlak A. Study of National Incidence and Prevalence of Child Abuse and Neglect . Bethesda, Md: Westat; 1987.
2.
Besharov DJ. Recognizing Child Abuse: A Guide for the Concerned . New York, NY: Free Press; 1990.
3.
Caffey J.  Multiple fractures in the long bones of infants suffering from chronic subdural hematoma . Am J Roentgenol Radiat Ther . 1946;56:163-173.
4.
Silverman F.  The roentgen manifestations of unrecognized skeletal trauma in infants . Am J Roentgenol Radiat Ther . 1953;69:413-426.
5.
Kempe CH, Silverman RN, Steele BF, Droegemueller W, Silver HK.  The battered-child syndrome . JAMA . 1962;181:17-24.Article
6.
Caffey J.  The whiplash shaken infant syndrome: manual shaking by the extremities with whiplash-induced intracranial and intraocular bleedings, linked with residual permanent brain damage and mental retardation . Pediatrics . 1946;53:396-403.
7.
Friendly DS.  Ocular manifestations of physical child abuse . Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol . 1971;75:318-332.
8.
Olver JM, Hague S.  Children presenting to an ophthalmic casualty department . Eye . 1989;3:415-419.Article
9.
Riffenburgh RS, Sathyavagiswaran L.  Ocular findings at autopsy of child abuse victims . Ophthalmology . 1991;98:1519-1524.Article
10.
Eisenbrey AB.  Retinal hemorrhage in the battered child . Child's Brain . 1979;5:40-44.
11.
Elner SG, Elner VM, Arnall M, Albert DM.  Ocular and associated systemic findings in suspected child abuse: a necropsy study . Arch Ophthalmol . 1990;108:1094-1101.Article
12.
Lambert SR, Johnson TE, Hoyt CS.  Optic nerve sheath and retinal hemorrhages associated with the shaken-baby syndrome . Arch Ophthalmol . 1986;104:1509-1512.Article
13.
Wilkinson WS, Han DP, Rappley MD, Owings CL.  Retinal hemorrhage predicts neurologic injury in the shaken-baby syndrome . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;104:1472-1474.Article
14.
Giangiacomo J, Khan JA, Levine C, Thompson VM.  Sequential cranial computed tomography in infants with retinal hemorrhages . Ophthalmology . 1988;95:295-299.Article
15.
Massicotte SJ, Folberg R, Torczynski E, Gilliland MGF, Luckenbach MW.  Vitreoretinal traction and perimacular retinal folds in the eyes of deliberately traumatized children . Ophthalmology . 1991;98:1124-1127.Article
16.
Schmitt B. The Child Protection Team Handbook . New York, NY: Garland Publishing Inc; 1978.
×