[Skip to Content]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
[Skip to Content Landing]
October 1993

Immunoreactivity of Exfoliation Material for the Cell Adhesion—Related HNK-1 Carbohydrate Epitope

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki (Finland) University Central Hospital. The authors have no financial interest in the products or methods described in this study.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111(10):1419-1423. doi:10.1001/archopht.1993.01090100127039

Objective:  To study the presence of the HNK-1 epitope in exfoliation material.

Methods:  Twenty-six formalin-fixed, paraffinembedded human eyes with exfoliation syndrome and 30 control eyes were studied immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies HNK-1 and VC1.1 to the HNK-1 epitope.

Results:  Exfoliation material reacted consistently with antibodies to the HNK-1 epitope. The zonular lamella of the lens, inner surface of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, and inner connective tissue layer of the ciliary body were also labeled, but the lens capsule, epithelium, and zonules were not immunoreactive. Several blood vessels of the iris showed granular immunoreaction beneath the endothelium in all exfoliation eyes and in 11 (37%) of 30 control eyes, representing older age groups.

Conclusions:  The zonular lamella, nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, or the inner connective tissue layer may be responsible for the HNK-1 epitope in exfoliation material. Since this epitope is shared by many cell-adhesion molecules, its presence in exfoliation material might be of pathogenetic significance to the formation of the deposits.

Morrison JC, Green WR.  Light microscopy of the exfoliation syndrome . Acta Ophthalmol . 1988;66:5-27.Article
Ashton N, Shakib M, Collyer R, Blach R.  Electron microscopic study of pseudoexfoliation of the lens capsule, I: lens capsule and zonular fibers . Invest Ophthalmol . 1965;4:141-153.
Dark AJ, Streeten BW, Cornwall CC.  Pseudoexfoliative disease of the lens: a study in electron microscopy and histochemistry . Br J Ophthalmol . 1977:61:462-472.Article
Ghosh M, Speakman JS.  The ciliary body in senile exfoliation of the lens . Can J Ophthalmol . 1973;8:394-403.
Ghosh M, Speakman JS.  The origin of senile lens exfoliation . Can J Ophthalmol . 1983;18:340-343.
Ringvold A.  The distribution of the exfoliation material in the iris from eyes with exfoliation syndrome (pseudoexfoliation of the lens capsule) . Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol . 1970;351:168-178.Article
Ringvold A.  Light and electron microscopy of the wall of iris vessels in eyes with and without exfoliation syndrome (pseudoexfoliation of the lens capsule) . Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol . 1970;349:1-9.Article
Ghosh M, Speakman JS.  The iris in senile exfoliation of the lens . Can J Ophthalmol . 1974;9:289-297.
Speakman JS, Ghosh M.  The conjunctiva in senile lens exfoliation . Arch Ophthalmol . 1976;94:1757-1759.Article
Eagle RC, Font RL, Fine BS.  The basement membrane exfoliation syndrome . Arch Ophthalmol . 1979;97:510-515.Article
Streeten BW, Dark AJ, Wallace RN, Li ZY, Hoepner JA.  Pseudoexfoliative fibrillopathy in the skin of patients with ocular pseudoexfoliation . Am J Ophthalmol . 1990;110:490-499.
Schlötzer-Schrehardt U, Kühle M, Naumann GOH.  Electron-microscopic identification of pseudoexfoliation material in extrabulbar tissue . Arch Ophthalmol . 1991;109:565-570.Article
Schlötzer-Schrehardt UM, Koca MR, Naumann GOH, Volkholz H.  Pseudoexfoliation syndrome: ocular manifestation of a systemic disorder? Arch Ophthalmol . 1992;110:1752-1756.Article
Streeten BW, Li ZY, Wallace RN, Eagle RC Jr, Keshgegian AA.  Pseudoexfoliative fibrillopathy in visceral organs of a patient with pseudoexfoliation syndrome . Arch Ophthalmol . 1992;110:1757-1762.Article
Streeten BW, Gibson SA, Dark AJ.  Pseudoexfoliative material contains an elastic microfibrillar-associated glycoprotein . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc . 1986;84:304-320.
Li ZY, Streeten BW, Wallace RN.  Association of elastin with pseudoexfoliative material: an immunoelectron microscopic study . Curr Eye Res . 1988;7:1163-1172.Article
Konstas AG, Marshall GE, Lee WR.  Immunogold localisation of laminin in normal and exfoliative iris . Br J Ophthalmol . 1990;74:450-457.Article
Schlötzer-Schrehardt UM, Dörfler S, Naumann GOH.  Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components in pseudoexfoliation material of the lens capsule . Curr Eye Res . 1992;11:343-355.Article
Kruse J, Mailhammer R, Wernecke H, et al.  Neural cell adhesion molecules and myelin-associated glycoprotein share a common carbohydrate moiety recognized by monoclonal antibodies L2 and HNK-1 . Nature . 1984;311:153-155.Article
Kivelä T.  Expression of the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope in human retina and retinoblastoma: an immunohistochemical study with the anti-Leu-7 monoclonal antibody . Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol . 1986;410:139-146.Article
Uusitalo M, Kivelä T, Tarkkanen A.  Identification of a novel element in the human eye: the inner connective tissue layer of the ciliary body characterized with antibodies to the HNK-1 epitope . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1993;34:2372-2381.
Abo T, Balch CM.  A differentiation antigen of human NK and K cells identified by a monoclonal antibody (HNK-1) . J Immunol . 1981;127:1024-1029.
Arimatsu Y, Naegele JR, Barnstable CJ.  Molecular markers of neuronal subpopulations in layers 4, 5, and 6 of cat primary visual cortex . J Neurosci . 1987;7:1250-1263.
Streeten BW, Gibson SA, Li ZY.  Lectin binding to pseudoexfoliative material and the ocular zonules . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1986;27:1516-1521.
Hietanen J, Tarkkanen A.  Glycoconjugates in exfoliation syndrome: a lectin histochemical study of the ciliary body and lens . Acta Ophthalmol . 1989;67:288-294.Article
Chou DKH, llyas AA, Evans JE, Costello C, Quarles RH, Jungalwala FB.  Structure of sulfated glucuronyl glycolipids in the nervous system reacting with HNK-1 antibody and some IgM paraproteins in neuropathy . J Biol Chem . 1986;261:11717-11725.
Margolis RK, Ripellino JA, Goossen B, Steinbrich R, Margolis RU.  Occurrence of the HNK-1 epitope (3-sulfoglucuronic acid) in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, chromaffin granule membranes, and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans . Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 1987;145:1142-1148.Article
Hogan MJ, Alvarado JA, Weddel JE.  Iris and anterior chamber . In: Histology of the Human Eye: An Atlas and Textbook . Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1971:202-259.
Prince AM. Streeten BW, Ritch R, Dark AJ, Sperling M.  Preclinical diagnosis of pseudoexfoliation syndrome . Arch Ophthalmol . 1987;105:1076-1082.Article
Zaremba S, Naegele JR, Barnstable CJ, Hockfield S.  Neuronal subsets express multiple high-molecular-weight cell-surface glycoconjugates defined by monoclonal antibodies Cat-301 and VC1.1 . J Neurosci . 1990;10:2985-2995.
Kosaka T, Isogai K. Barnstable CJ, Heizmann CW.  Monoclonal antibody HNK-1 selectively stains a subpopulation of GABAergic neurons containing the calciumbinding protein parvalbumin in the rat cerebral cortex . Exp Brain Res . 1990;82:566-574.Article
Nobile-Orazio E, Hays AP, Latov N, et al.  Specificity of mouse and human monoclonal antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein . Neurology . 1984;34:1336-1342.Article
Dobersen MJ, Hammer JA, Noronha AB, et al.  Generation and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies to the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) . Neurochem Res . 1985;10:499-513.Article
Li ZY, Streeten BW, Yohai N.  Amyloid P protein in pseudoexfoliative fibrillopathy . Curr Eye Res . 1989;8:217-227.Article
Loveless RW, Floyd-O'Sullivan G, Raynes JG, Yuen CT, Feizi T.  Human serum amyloid P is a multispecific adhesive protein whose ligands include 6-phos-phorylated mannose and the 3-sulphated saccharides galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid . EMBO J . 1992;11:813-819.