The development of the stapes has been studied in man as well as in several animals, and the quite complicated morphogenesis of this ossicle has been satisfactorily clarified (Broman, Oesterle, Bast and Anson, and others). However, the finer structure of the stapes has been much less thoroughly investigated, most probably because until a few years ago this was a question of merely academic interest. Since the advent of microsurgery of the ear this situation has changed. Certain operative procedures derive their rationale from the presumed tendency of the fractures of the human stapes to heal by membranous union of the fragments rather than by bony union. Under these circumstances a renewed study of the finer structure of the human stapes seemed advisable.
Review of the Literature
According to Oesterle, the stapedial crura consist as a rule of 3 layers of bone, which are separated from each other by apposition
ALTMANN F, BASEK M. The Finer Structure of the Human StapesRemarks on the Healing of Stapedial Fractures. Arch Otolaryngol. 1961;73(5):507–512. doi:10.1001/archotol.1961.00740020519003