Laryngeal atresia is one of the rarest congenital airway anomalies, with approximately 70 documented cases in the world literature. Many of these cases are postmortem reports, with only a few of these neonates having survived delivery, generally in 1 of 2 scenarios.
The first scenario involves prenatal diagnosis by the characteristic sonographic findings of the congenital high airway obstruction syndrome, including distended lungs, dilated airways, flattened diaphragms, and fetal hydrops.1 If airway obstruction is anticipated, the appropriate personnel and equipment to perform a rapid tracheotomy under fetal circulation can be assembled in the delivery room.2
Cohen MS, Rothschild MA, Moscoso J, Shlasko E. Perinatal Management of Unanticipated Congenital Laryngeal Atresia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998;124(12):1368-1371. doi:10.1001/archotol.124.12.1368