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Original Investigation
February 2016

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chronic Rhinosinusitus, Allergic Rhinitis, and Nasal Septal DeviationResults of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2008-2012

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea
  • 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Sensory Organ Research Center, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Graduate School of Immunology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;142(2):162-167. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2015.3142
Abstract

Importance  Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), allergic rhinitis (AR), and nasal septal deviation (NSD) are frequent rhinologic diseases that consume considerable health care resources.

Objective  To determine the prevalence and risk factors of CRS, AR, and NSD in Korea.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This study analyzed 5-year cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2012. A total of 35 511 participants, who underwent an interview regarding nasal symptoms and a nasal examination, were enrolled and subsequently divided into 3 groups: children (aged 7-12 years), adolescents (aged 13-19 years), and adults (aged ≥20 years).

Main Outcomes and Measures  Adult CRS was classified into CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). Diagnosis of AR was based on symptoms and serum levels of specific IgE for 3 allergens, including Dermatophagoides farinae. The precise prevalence of AR was reestimated by multiplying the reciprocal of D farinae frequency based on a conventional skin prick test. Nasal septal deviation was diagnosed via nasal endoscopy after nasal decongestion. This study estimated the association of the 3 diseases with demographic data, including sex, age, obesity, level of education, socioeconomic status, residence, smoking, and alcohol.

Results  The prevalence of CRSwNP and CRSsNP in 28 912 adults was 2.6% and 5.8%, respectively. An association was found between CRSwNP and age (odds ratio [OR], 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04; P < .001), lower level of education (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02-1.92; P = .04), and obesity (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.16-1.84; P = .001). Symptom-based and allergy test result–based AR had a prevalence of 27.5% (n = 35 511) and 16.1% (n = 2298), respectively. The reestimated prevalence of AR was 18.5% for all ages. Urban residence increased the risk of AR (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06-1.38; P = .005), but age was associated with a decreased risk (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-0.99; P < .001). The prevalence of NSD was 48.0% and increased with age. In addition, NSD was a risk factor for CRSsNP (adjusted OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32; P = .03) but not for CRSwNP.

Conclusions and Relevance  In KNHANES 2008-2012, older age was associated with increased risk for CRSwNP and NSD but associated with a decreased risk for AR. Obesity was another risk factor for CRSwNP.

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