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Original Investigation
October 13, 2016

Association of Clinical Risk Factors and Postoperative Complications With Unplanned Hospital Readmission After Head and Neck Cancer Surgery

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
  • 2Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida
  • 3Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Published online October 13, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2016.2807

Importance  Unplanned hospital readmission is costly and in recent years has become a focus of health care legislation intended to reduce health care expenditures. Greater understanding of which perioperative complications are associated with hospital readmission after surgery for head and neck cancer is needed to reduce unplanned readmissions.

Objective  To determine which clinical risk factors and complications are associated with 30-day unplanned readmission after surgery for malignant neoplasms of the head and neck.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This retrospective longitudinal claims analysis included data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2014. Patients undergoing surgery for malignant tumors of the head and neck were included; those with a primary diagnosis of thyroid malignant disease and those undergoing free autologous tissue transfer were excluded.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Clinical risk factors and complications were analyzed for association with unplanned hospital readmission using multivariable regression analysis. Statistical significance was determined using P < .05.

Results  A total of 7605 patients (5007 men [65.8%]; mean [SD] age, 64.2 [0.2] years) were identified and included for analysis. Overall, 1472 complications occurred in 912 cases. Three hundred eighty-eight patients (5.1%) had an unplanned readmission, which was lower than the previously published overall readmission rate for noncardiac surgical procedures in the NSQIP (6.8%). Clinical factors that were independently associated with unplanned readmission were age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22), diabetes (AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.01-2.43), preoperative dyspnea at rest (AOR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.40-5.55) and with moderate exertion (AOR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.01-2.11), long-term use of corticosteroids (AOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.63-3.58), disseminated cancer (AOR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.14-2.20), and a contaminated wound (AOR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.05-3.7). When specific complications were examined, superficial incisional surgical site infection (SSI) (AOR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.14-3.40), deep incisional SSI (AOR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.26-5.03), organ or space SSI (AOR, 13.27; 95% CI, 6.57-26.61), wound disruption (AOR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.95-6.31), pneumonia (AOR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.88-5.96), deep vein thrombosis (AOR, 5.60; 95% CI, 1.90-15.25), pulmonary embolism (AOR, 20.72; 95% CI, 7.86-55.68), urinary tract infection (AOR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.00-6.34), stroke (AOR, 12.42; 95% CI, 3.99-36.50), sepsis (AOR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.27-5.30), and septic shock (AOR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.10-15.81) were all associated with 30-day unplanned hospital readmission.

Conclusions and Relevance  This study evaluated clinical factors and postoperative complications to determine which ones were associated with 30-day unplanned hospital readmission among patients undergoing surgery for malignant tumors of the head and neck. Further understanding of which complications are associated with unplanned readmission after head and neck surgery will allow for improved risk stratification and development of postoperative care protocols to reduce unplanned hospital readmission.