ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY
Hasty1 lays particular stress on malnutrition in childhood as being responsible for developmental defects (pathologic anatomy) in the sphenoid and ethmoid cells. The malformation and variability make them easily susceptible to disease. The author makes the statement that disease in the ethmoid cells is probably the original focus of infection that subsequently involves other paranasal sinuses.
Williams2 reported a case in which the patient complained of symptoms of maxillary sinus disease, and the roentgenogram revealed a few rudimentary cells occupying the normal site of the antrum.
Wenner3 experimented by irrigating the antrums of rabbits with chemicals such as alizarin and oxalates. These substances have the property of precipitating the calcium ions normally found in the cells of the mucous membrane lining. After irrigations he found that the cilia became paralyzed, resulting in subsequent infection in the sinuses. He concludes, therefore, that calcium is necessary for normal
SMYTH DC. Progress in OtolaryngologyA Summary of the Bibliographic Material Available in the Field of Otolaryngology for 1931THE PARANASAL CAVITIES. Arch Otolaryngol. 1932;16(3):381–420. doi:10.1001/archotol.1932.00630040391009