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A retractor is offered for use in the operation for exposing the inferior aspect of the petrous pyramid. It is made in two sizes, for children and for adults. Because of the depth of the space in which the operator works when attacking this area, it is necessary to have retractors of special design. After the superficial fascia is divided, retraction becomes necessary to protect the carotid sheath, keep the facial nerve out of the field and, at the same time, remove from the field of vision the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and the muscles attached to the styloid process.Further retraction is then made on the pharyngeal muscles upward and inward and includes the palatal muscles. The objective of the retraction is the exposure of the area of the attachment of the tendinous portion of the levator palatini muscle and of the pharngeal
MYERSON MC. INSTRUMENTS FOR USE IN SURGERY OF THE PETROUS PYRAMID. Arch Otolaryngol. 1937;25(4):474–475. doi:10.1001/archotol.1937.00650010528013