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Leonardo da Vinci's Contribution to Laryngology, Rhinology and Phonetics.Dr. Charles J. Imperatori.
Barred to his contemporaries, Leonardo da Vinci's contributions to anatomy were first published several centuries after his death. Had they appeared during his lifetime they would have revolutionized the study of anatomy and physiology, and the progress of medicine and surgery would have been greatly advanced. His notes and drawings are now available in books based on a collection preserved at Windsor Castle, the "dell'anatomia," published in 1898 and the "Quaderni d'anatomia," published in 1916. I shall limit my discussion to the sections devoted to the study of laryngology, rhinology and phonetics, with a description of nine drawings and excerpts from the accompanying notes. The difficulties of the student of anatomy in the sixteenth century are dramtically pictured in Leonardo's own words, and brief reference is made to the prolific contributions of this genius, who was artist,
HOUSER KM, HEWSON W, WHELAN GL. COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF PHILADELPHIA, SECTION OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY. Arch Otolaryngol. 1942;35(5):836–839. doi:10.1001/archotol.1942.00670010843019