The histological findings in the ears of five patients who sustained accidental surgical luxation of the stapes indicate that the extent of inner ear damage depends upon the size of the fistula cerated in the oval window and the amount of associated trauma to the structures in the vestibule. Ordinarily footplate injuries can be avoided during ear surgery by the use of appropriate magnification. if, however, luxation does occur, it should be possible to avoid inner ear damage by either repositioning of the footplate or sealing the fistula with tissue or gelfoam.
Kohonen A. Surgical Luxation of the Footplate of the Stapes. Arch Otolaryngol. 1970;91(3):242–249. doi:10.1001/archotol.1970.00770040348005