• When substantial destruction of the facial nerve occurs as a result of trauma, measures to animate the face, such as transfer of masticatory muscles, must be considered. Unfortunately, these techniques have been limited by a difficult reeducation process for the patient and failure of these muscles to reach sufficiently large areas. A method of extending the temporalis muscle with galea allows rotation into important areas of the face. Case presentations illustrate specific indications, advantages, and disadvantages of this technique.
(Arch Otolaryngol 1985;111:168-173)
Mathog RH, Ragab MA. Temporalis Muscle-Galea Flap in Facial Reanimation. Arch Otolaryngol. 1985;111(3):168–173. doi:10.1001/archotol.1985.00800050062008