• Sixty patients, ranging in age from 29 to 74 years, were studied for the effect of animation of the upper half of the face on the aging features. Patients were divided into three categories according to the dominant behavioral pattern: brow lifters, frowners, and squinters. Brow ptosis was accentuated laterally in the squinters and medially in the frowners. The brow-lifter group showed more uniform displacement of the eyebrow. The coarse wrinkles or the animation lines also correlated well with the animation pattern. These patterns are acquired in childhood and remain subconsciously in effect throughout adult life and therefore have a significant effect on brow ptosis.
(Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989;115:710-713)
Ellis DAF, Masri H. The Effect of Facial Animation on the Aging Upper Half of the Face. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1989;115(6):710-713. doi:10.1001/archotol.1989.01860300064018