Plastic bronchitis is a rare condition, characterized by the formation of thick mucus plugs that cause airway obstruction. It is seen in a variety of disorders, including congenital cyanotic heart disease following palliative surgery. We describe the case of a 5-year-old child with hypoplastic left-heart syndrome who had undergone a Fontan procedure and developed recurrent bronchial cast formation. These casts were treated aggressively with repeated rigid bronchoscopy and adjuvant medical therapy. We present a brief review of the pathogenesis, treatment options, and description of the challenges involved with endoscopic removal of bronchial casts.
Silva RC, Simons JP, Chi DH, Yellon RF, Alper CM. Endoscopic Treatment of Plastic Bronchitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;137(4):401-403. doi:10.1001/archoto.2011.43