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Figure 1.
An example of an undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx with dense lymphocytic infiltrate (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×540).

An example of an undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx with dense lymphocytic infiltrate (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×540).

Figure 2.
Degree of lymphocyte infiltration in 8 specimens with cervical node–positive and 12 specimens with cervical node–negative findings in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal cancer. Bar indicates SE; mpf, medium power-fields.

Degree of lymphocyte infiltration in 8 specimens with cervical node–positive and 12 specimens with cervical node–negative findings in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal cancer. Bar indicates SE; mpf, medium power-fields.

Figure 3.
Lymphocyte (L) infiltrating into the cancer cell (arrows) (original magnification ×9000).

Lymphocyte (L) infiltrating into the cancer cell (arrows) (original magnification ×9000).

Figure 4.
Lysis of a tumor cell (T) with loss of cytoplasm and organelles observed in the vicinity of a lymphocyte (L) (original magnification ×6000).

Lysis of a tumor cell (T) with loss of cytoplasm and organelles observed in the vicinity of a lymphocyte (L) (original magnification ×6000).

Table 1. 
Characteristics of Patients With Nasopharyngeal Cancer*
Characteristics of Patients With Nasopharyngeal Cancer*
Table 2. 
Analysis of Cervical Nodal Metastasis*
Analysis of Cervical Nodal Metastasis*
1.
Gallimore  AP Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 1995;7388- 393Article
2.
Chen  YChew  CTChan  SH T-cell receptor gene expression in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 1995;72117- 122Article
3.
Gallo  PBianchi  SGiannini  AGallina  ELibonati  GAStorchi  OF Correlations between histopathological and biological findings in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its prognostic significance. Laryngoscope. 1991;101487- 493Article
4.
Fandi  ACvitkovic  E Biology and treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 1995;7255- 263Article
5.
Roth  SLKrueger  GFRBertram  GSack  H Carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Acta Oncol. 1990;29897- 901Article
6.
Shanmugaratnam  KChan  SHde-The  G  et al.  Histopathology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer. 1979;441029- 1044Article
7.
Taxy  JBHidvegi  DFBattifora  H Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: antikeratin immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Am J Clin Pathol. 1985;83320- 325
8.
Ferradini  LMiescher  SStoeck  M  et al.  Cytotoxic potential despite impaired activation pathways in T lymphocytes infiltrating nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1991;47362- 370Article
9.
Hang  ZBWei  YQWang  YPXu  NR Direct ultrastructural evidence of lymphocyte-mediated cancer lysis in the microenvironment of Chinese nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 1991;22320- 325Article
10.
Zong  YSZhang  CQZhang  F  et al.  Infiltrating lymphocytes and accessory cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1993;84900- 905Article
11.
American Joint Committee on Cancer, Pharynx. Beahrs  OHHenson  DEHutter  RVPKennedy  BJedsManual for Staging of Cancer. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa Lippincott-Raven1992;31- 33
12.
Bay  BHChan  YGYick  TYLeong  HK Electron microscopic observations and X-ray microanalysis of a multinucleated giant cell. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 1998;47359- 361Article
13.
Bay  BHChan  YGFong  CMLeong  HK Differential cellular zinc levels in metastatic and primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 1997;11745- 748
14.
Hwang  JMFu  KKPhillips  TL Results and prognostic factors in the retreatment of locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1998;411099- 1111Article
15.
Burt  RDVaughan  TLMcKnight  B Descriptive epidemiology and survival analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the United States. Int J Cancer. 1992;52549- 556Article
16.
Jass  JRJ Lymphocytic infiltration and survival in rectal cancer. J Clin Pathol. 1986;39585- 589Article
17.
Giorgio  ADBotti  CMingazzini  PCanavese  AArnone  P Gastric cancer: prognosis and lymph node reactivity. Eur J Surg. 1995;161575- 580
18.
Wolf  GTHudson  JLPeterson  KAMiller  HLMcClatchey  KD Lymphocyte subpopulations infiltrating squamous carcinomas of the head and neck: correlations with extent of tumor and prognosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1986;95142- 152
19.
Koyja  SItokazu  TNoda  Y  et al.  Site-specific localization of Epstein-Barr virus in pharyngeal carcinoma. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1998;89510- 515Article
20.
Lakhdar  MBen Aribia  MHMaalej  MLadgham  A Selective homing of phenotypically lytic cells within nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies: numerous CD8- and CD16-positive cells in the tumor. Int J Cancer. 1991;4857- 61Article
21.
Hsu  MMHsu  HCLui  LT Local immune reaction in nasopharyngeal carcinoma with special reference to its prognostic evaluation. Head Neck. 1989;11505- 510Article
22.
Hellstrom  KEHellstrom  I Cellular immunity against tumour antigens. Adv Cancer Res. 1969;12167- 223
23.
Kreider  JWBarlett  GLButkiewicz  BL Relationship of tumor leukocyte infiltration to host defense mechanisms and prognosis. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 1984;353- 74Article
24.
Galili  UKlein  EKlein  GBal  IS Activated T lymphocytes in infiltrates and draining lymph nodes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1980;2585- 89Article
25.
Wu  LJChen  KYChi  KH  et al.  The significance of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in monitoring disease relapse in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 1998;28729- 732Article
26.
Vose  BMVanky  FKlein  E Human tumour-lymphocyte interaction in vitro, V: comparison of the reactivity of tumour-infiltrating blood and lymph-node lymphocytes with autologous tumour cells. Int J Cancer. 1977;20895- 902Article
27.
Ambinder  RFRobertson  KDMoore  SMYang  J Epstein-Barr virus as a therapeutic target in Hodgkin's and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Semin Cancer Biol. 1996;7217- 226Article
28.
Tang  KFChan  SHLoh  KS  et al.  Increased production of interferon-γ by tumour infiltrating T lymphocytes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: indicative of an activated status. Cancer Lett. 1999;14093- 98Article
29.
Rosenberg  SAPackard  BSAebersold  PM  et al.  Use of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin-2 in the immunotherapy of patients with metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 1988;3191676- 1680Article
30.
Topalian  SLSolomon  DAvis  FP  et al.  Immunotherapy of patients with advanced cancer using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and recombinant interleukin-2: a pilot study. J Clin Oncol. 1988;6839- 853
31.
Kradin  RLBoyle  LAPreffer  FI  et al.  Tumor-derived interleukin-2 dependent lymphocytes in adoptive immunotherapy of lung cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1987;2476- 85Article
Original Article
November 2000

Lymphocytic Infiltration in Undifferentiated Nasopharyngeal Cancer

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore (Drs Jayasurya and Bay), the Department of Pathology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Dr Yap), and the Department of Otolaryngology, Singapore General Hospital (Dr Tan), Singapore.

Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000;126(11):1329-1332. doi:10.1001/archotol.126.11.1329
Abstract

Background  Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is characterized by prominent lymphocytic infiltration. Although the lymphoid infiltrate in NPC has been examined extensively in morphologic and immunocytochemical studies, the significance of this lymphoid infiltrate and its correlation with prognosis has been a subject of controversy for years.

Objective  To elucidate the significance of lymphoid infiltration in undifferentiated NPC.

Design  Evaluation of the relationship between lymphocytic infiltration in NPC and cervical lymph node status, ultrastructural examination of the lymphoid infiltrate, and assessment of lymphocytic infiltration as an independent prognosticator of regional node metastasis.

Materials and Methods  Lymphocytic infiltration was evaluated quantitatively in 20 cases of undifferentiated NPC using light microscopy. Four cases of undifferentiated NPC were processed for conventional electron microscopy. The effects of degree of lymphocytic infiltration, age, and tumor stage on cervical nodal metastasis were analysed using the logistic regression model.

Results  The degree of lymphoid infiltration correlated with cervical nodal metastasis (P<.001). Ultrastructural evidence of lymphocytes destroying cancer cells was seen. Lymphocytic infiltration was found to be an independent factor affecting cervical nodal metastasis (P = .02, univariate analysis; P = .03, multivariate analysis).

Conclusions  The lymphoid infiltrate is beneficial in undifferentiated NPC, and its presence may deter regional metastasis of cancer cells to the cervical nodes.

NASOPHARYNGEAL carcinoma (NPC), one of the most common types of cancer in Southeast Asia,1 is a tumor of epithelial origin2 with a nonhomogenous architechture.3 The tumor has a multifactorial etiology and differs from other head and neck cancers by characteristic histological findings.4 It has been classified by the World Health Organization3 as including main types squamous cell carcinoma and nonkeratinizing and undifferentiated carcinoma.5

The predominant type, undifferentiated carcinoma, has been described previously as a lymphoepithelioma.6,7 Based on the distribution of lymphocytes among the tumor cells, 2 patterns have been recognized, ie, the Regaud pattern, where the lymphocytes are present around the periphery of tumor cell aggregates, and the Schmincke pattern, where the lymphocytes are associated intimately within the tumor nests.1 The lymphocytic infiltrate is often accompanied by a reactive component consisting of eosinophils, dendritic cells, and macrophages.3 The prognostic significance of lymphocytic infiltration in undifferentiated NPC is controversial. On the one hand, the lymphoid infiltrate is thought to represent a local immune reaction against NPC and is associated with a good prognosis.8 Hang et al9 have demonstrated evidence of lymphocyte-mediated cancer cell lysis by the lymphoid infiltrate (which consists essentially of T lymphocytes).2,10 On the other hand, lymphocytic infiltration has also been reported to be unrelated to better survival in patients with NPC.3

In this study, we investigated lymphoid infiltration in undifferentiated NPC under light and electron microscopy and analyzed the effect of the degree of lymphocytic infiltration with variables such as age and tumor stage on cervical node metastasis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 20 patients with undifferentiated NPC (World Health Organization type 3) before treatment were included for the light microscopic study. Eight patients with no cervical node metastasis met the American Joint Committee on Cancer11 staging criteria for stage II cancer, and the other 12 patients with cervical node enlargement were classified as having stage III and IV cancer. The postnasal biopsy tissue samples were obtained from 20 men (17 Chinese, 2 Malayan, and 1 Thai; mean age, 47 years). The presenting symptoms of these patients were decreased hearing, nasal symptoms such as discharge and epistaxis, and respiratory symptoms such as blood-stained sputum. Twelve patients (60%) already had cervical lymph node enlargement at the time of diagnosis (Table 1).

HISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS

All the specimens were reviewed by two of us (W.-M.Y. and A.J.). The density of the infiltrating lymphocytes was quantitated by counting the number of cells distributed within the carcinomatous nests (and not at the interface or the periphery of the tumor tissue) in 10 randomly chosen medium power fields (original magnification ×160).

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

For conventional electron microscopy, tissues from 4 cases of undifferentiated NPC were fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde before osmication in 2% osmium tetroxide as previously described.12 Postosmicated samples were dehydrated in an ascending series of ethanol and embedded in araldite (Araldite 502 Resin; Ted Pella Inc, Redding, Calif). Ultrathin sections were cut and mounted on polyvinyl formal resin–coated copper grids (Formvar; Shawinigan, London, England). Grids were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate before viewing in a transmission electron microscope (JEOL 1200 EM; JEOL, Tokyo, Japan).

STATISTICAL METHODS

Commercially available software (SPSS package; SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill) was used to study the relationship between variables such as age, tumor stage, and lymphocytic infiltration by means of logistic regression model. For tumor stage, T1 and T2 were taken as group 1 and T3 and T4 were taken as group 2. Sample means were compared by means of the t test. P<.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS
HISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS

Lymphocytic infiltration was present in all 20 cases of undifferentiated carcinoma. The tumor cells were arranged in irregular or moderately well-defined masses in a lymphoid stroma. The lymphocytes appeared as heavy hematoxylin-stained nuclei with little cytoplasm (Figure 1). We examined the relationship between the degree of lymphocytic infiltration (expressed per 10 medium power fields [mpf]) and cervical node metastasis (Table 1). The degree of lymphoid infiltration observed in tumor sections from patients without cervical node involvement (mean + SE, 170 + 32 cells per10 mpf) was significantly higher than those with cervical node disease (mean + SE, 51 + 9 cells per 10 mpf) (Figure 2; P<.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age and tumor stage were not associated with nodal metastasis, but that only the lymphocytic infiltration was related independently to the cervical nodal metastasis (Table 2).

ULTRASTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Conventional transmission electron microscopy of undifferentiated NPC revealed that the tumor tissue was heavily infiltrated with the lymphocytes. These lymphocytes, seen in close association with the malignant epithelial cells, conjugated with the tumor cells and caused alterations in the tumor cell membrane (Figure 3) and degradation of the cell organelles, which led to lysis of the tumor cell (Figure 4). The lymphocytes maintained their cellular morphologic features. Cancer cells not conjugated by lymphocytes remained intact.

COMMENT

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a rare tumor in Western countries but common in Oriental populations, has a high rate of treatment failure because of its rapid growth and highly metastatic behavior.4 Various prognostic factors have been studied in NPC in attempts to modify and potentiate the efficacy of treatment regimens.13 Age, histological features, and interval to recurrence have been found to be independent prognostic factors for overall survival, but only histological features and presence of complications were significant factors for the length of time with no locoregional progression.14,15 Hence, the outcome of disease clearly depends on the histological features of the tumor.

Undifferentiated NPC consists of a malignant component of epithelial tumor cells and a distinct lymphoid infiltrate. Lymphocytic infiltration among tumor cells is found in many other human malignant neoplasms, including breast cancers, colon carcinoma, lung cancers, malignant melanoma, and germinomas; their presence is associated with a good prognosis.9 In rectal cancer, semiquantitative assessment of the infiltrating lymphocytes was correlated with survival and was found to have an independent effect.16 In contrast, TNM staging rather than lymphocytic infiltration was observed to be related to prognostication in gastric cancer.17 Lymphocytic subpopulations infiltrating the squamous cell cancers of the head and neck, including the nasopharynx, reportedly indicate a more favorable prognosis.18,19 Our present study shows that lymphocytic infiltration is an independent factor affecting nodal metastasis and that this is not influenced by the stage of the tumor or the age of the patients with NPC.

The lymphoid cells within nasopharyngeal tumors are known to be cytologically normal.20 Immunocytochemical characterization of lymphocytes in NPC has shown that the lymphoid stromata, consisting mainly of a high density of mature T cells, were composed of a mixture of the phenotypes for Leu 3 (helper/inducer), CD8 (cytotoxic/suppressor), and the receptor for interleukin 2 (activated T lymphocytes) phenotypes.9,21 Other studies10,21 have recognized B lymphocytes, which are present rarely in the tumor parenchyma, as being of the L-26 or CD45R subtype.

The importance of T cells in tumor immunity, as evidenced by the direct killing of the tumor cells mediated via activated lymphocytes, was demonstrated some 30 years ago.22 Infiltrating lymphocytes are believed to be a reflection of the host immune response.2325 Marked lymphocytic infiltration has been postulated to prevent lymphatic metastasis.10 Studies by Vose et al26 have shown a higher frequency of cytotoxicity in the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of NPC than in kidney or lung tumors. A significant cytolytic potential is reported to be latently present among the T lymphocytes in NPC,8 and the viral antigens (Epstein-Barr virus) expressed by the tumors are thought to be the targets of the cytotoxic T lymphocytes.27 Morphologic evidence of lymphocyte-mediated cancer cell lysis has been documented previously,9 and tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes are known to increase interferon-γ production.28 Furthermore, it has been reported that immunotherapy of patients with the use of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin 2 seems to be effective in some advanced cancers such as metastatic melanoma,29 renal cell carcinoma,30 and lung cancers.31 Our ultrastructural studies have also provided evidence of the cytotoxic nature of these lymphocytes, supporting the notion that lymphocytes in NPC are nonmalignant elements.

Thus, the abundant lymphoid infiltrate observed in NPC would play a significant role in the biology of this neoplasm. In fact, it would appear that the infiltrating lymphocytes may have a role in preventing regional metastasis, thereby affecting prognosis, as evidenced by the significant difference in the degree of lymphoid infiltration in patients with NPC with and without cervical lymph node disease and by the independent effect of the lymphocytic infiltration on nodal metastasis.

CONCLUSIONS

Lymphocytic infiltration is a striking feature of undifferentiated NPC. Lymphocyte-mediated lysis of NPC cells is evident from the morphologic features observed ultrastructurally. Because of their cytotoxic effect on NPC cells and their independent effect on cervical node metastasis, the infiltrating lymphocytes would affect tumor growth, progression, and spread of this highly metastatic neoplasm significantly.

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Article Information

Accepted for publication May 18, 2000.

This study was supported by grant NMRC/0244/1997 from the National Medical Research Council, Singapore.

The authors are grateful to Dong Fang, PhD, for the statistical analysis of the data and to Yee-Gek Chan and P. Gobalkrishnan for technical assistance.

Corresponding author: Boon-Huat Bay, MBBS, PhD, Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore, BLK MD10, 4 Medical Dr, S117597, Singapore (e-mail: antbaybh@nus.edu.sg).

References
1.
Gallimore  AP Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 1995;7388- 393Article
2.
Chen  YChew  CTChan  SH T-cell receptor gene expression in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 1995;72117- 122Article
3.
Gallo  PBianchi  SGiannini  AGallina  ELibonati  GAStorchi  OF Correlations between histopathological and biological findings in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its prognostic significance. Laryngoscope. 1991;101487- 493Article
4.
Fandi  ACvitkovic  E Biology and treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 1995;7255- 263Article
5.
Roth  SLKrueger  GFRBertram  GSack  H Carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Acta Oncol. 1990;29897- 901Article
6.
Shanmugaratnam  KChan  SHde-The  G  et al.  Histopathology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer. 1979;441029- 1044Article
7.
Taxy  JBHidvegi  DFBattifora  H Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: antikeratin immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Am J Clin Pathol. 1985;83320- 325
8.
Ferradini  LMiescher  SStoeck  M  et al.  Cytotoxic potential despite impaired activation pathways in T lymphocytes infiltrating nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1991;47362- 370Article
9.
Hang  ZBWei  YQWang  YPXu  NR Direct ultrastructural evidence of lymphocyte-mediated cancer lysis in the microenvironment of Chinese nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 1991;22320- 325Article
10.
Zong  YSZhang  CQZhang  F  et al.  Infiltrating lymphocytes and accessory cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1993;84900- 905Article
11.
American Joint Committee on Cancer, Pharynx. Beahrs  OHHenson  DEHutter  RVPKennedy  BJedsManual for Staging of Cancer. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa Lippincott-Raven1992;31- 33
12.
Bay  BHChan  YGYick  TYLeong  HK Electron microscopic observations and X-ray microanalysis of a multinucleated giant cell. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 1998;47359- 361Article
13.
Bay  BHChan  YGFong  CMLeong  HK Differential cellular zinc levels in metastatic and primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 1997;11745- 748
14.
Hwang  JMFu  KKPhillips  TL Results and prognostic factors in the retreatment of locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1998;411099- 1111Article
15.
Burt  RDVaughan  TLMcKnight  B Descriptive epidemiology and survival analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the United States. Int J Cancer. 1992;52549- 556Article
16.
Jass  JRJ Lymphocytic infiltration and survival in rectal cancer. J Clin Pathol. 1986;39585- 589Article
17.
Giorgio  ADBotti  CMingazzini  PCanavese  AArnone  P Gastric cancer: prognosis and lymph node reactivity. Eur J Surg. 1995;161575- 580
18.
Wolf  GTHudson  JLPeterson  KAMiller  HLMcClatchey  KD Lymphocyte subpopulations infiltrating squamous carcinomas of the head and neck: correlations with extent of tumor and prognosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1986;95142- 152
19.
Koyja  SItokazu  TNoda  Y  et al.  Site-specific localization of Epstein-Barr virus in pharyngeal carcinoma. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1998;89510- 515Article
20.
Lakhdar  MBen Aribia  MHMaalej  MLadgham  A Selective homing of phenotypically lytic cells within nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies: numerous CD8- and CD16-positive cells in the tumor. Int J Cancer. 1991;4857- 61Article
21.
Hsu  MMHsu  HCLui  LT Local immune reaction in nasopharyngeal carcinoma with special reference to its prognostic evaluation. Head Neck. 1989;11505- 510Article
22.
Hellstrom  KEHellstrom  I Cellular immunity against tumour antigens. Adv Cancer Res. 1969;12167- 223
23.
Kreider  JWBarlett  GLButkiewicz  BL Relationship of tumor leukocyte infiltration to host defense mechanisms and prognosis. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 1984;353- 74Article
24.
Galili  UKlein  EKlein  GBal  IS Activated T lymphocytes in infiltrates and draining lymph nodes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1980;2585- 89Article
25.
Wu  LJChen  KYChi  KH  et al.  The significance of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in monitoring disease relapse in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 1998;28729- 732Article
26.
Vose  BMVanky  FKlein  E Human tumour-lymphocyte interaction in vitro, V: comparison of the reactivity of tumour-infiltrating blood and lymph-node lymphocytes with autologous tumour cells. Int J Cancer. 1977;20895- 902Article
27.
Ambinder  RFRobertson  KDMoore  SMYang  J Epstein-Barr virus as a therapeutic target in Hodgkin's and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Semin Cancer Biol. 1996;7217- 226Article
28.
Tang  KFChan  SHLoh  KS  et al.  Increased production of interferon-γ by tumour infiltrating T lymphocytes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: indicative of an activated status. Cancer Lett. 1999;14093- 98Article
29.
Rosenberg  SAPackard  BSAebersold  PM  et al.  Use of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin-2 in the immunotherapy of patients with metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 1988;3191676- 1680Article
30.
Topalian  SLSolomon  DAvis  FP  et al.  Immunotherapy of patients with advanced cancer using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and recombinant interleukin-2: a pilot study. J Clin Oncol. 1988;6839- 853
31.
Kradin  RLBoyle  LAPreffer  FI  et al.  Tumor-derived interleukin-2 dependent lymphocytes in adoptive immunotherapy of lung cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1987;2476- 85Article
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