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Figure.
The percentages of children with postoperative respiratory complication stratified by age group; P<.001.

The percentages of children with postoperative respiratory complication stratified by age group; P<.001.

Table. 
Demographic Data: Children Younger Than 6 Years With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Undergoing Adenotonsillectomy
Demographic Data: Children Younger Than 6 Years With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Undergoing Adenotonsillectomy
1.
Carroll  JL Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing in children: new controversies, new directions. Clin Chest Med 2003;24261- 282
PubMedArticle
2.
Schechter  MS Technical report: diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics 2002;109e69
PubMedArticle
3.
Gozal  D Morbidity of obstructive sleep apnea in children: facts and theory. Sleep Breath 2001;535- 42
PubMedArticle
4.
Amin  RSKimball  TRBean  JA  et al.  Left ventricular hypertrophy and abnormal ventricular geometry in children and adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;1651395- 1399
PubMedArticle
5.
Marcus  CLGreene  MGCarroll  JL Blood pressure in children with obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;1571098- 1103
PubMedArticle
6.
Amin  RSCarroll  JLJeffries  JL  et al.  Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure in children with sleep-disordered breathing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;169950- 956
PubMedArticle
7.
Amin  RSKimball  TRKalra  M  et al.  Left ventricular function in children with sleep-disordered breathing. Am J Cardiol 2005;95801- 804
PubMedArticle
8.
Friedman  BCHendeles-Amitai  AKozminsky  E  et al.  Adenotonsillectomy improves neurocognitive function in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep 2003;26999- 1005
PubMed
9.
Stradling  JRThomas  GWarley  ARWilliams  PFreeland  A Effect of adenotonsillectomy on nocturnal hypoxaemia, sleep disturbance, and symptoms in snoring children. Lancet 1990;335249- 253
PubMedArticle
10.
Gozal  DPope  DW  Jr Snoring during early childhood and academic performance at ages thirteen to fourteen years. Pediatrics 2001;1071394- 1399
PubMedArticle
11.
Steward  DLWelge  JAMyer  CM Do steroids reduce morbidity of tonsillectomy? meta-analysis of randomized trials. Laryngoscope 2001;1111712- 1718
PubMedArticle
12.
World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9).  Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1977
13.
Kalra  MBuncher  RAmin  RS Asthma as a risk factor for respiratory complications after adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive breathing during sleep. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2005;94549- 552
PubMedArticle
14.
Rosenfeld  RMGreen  RP Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy: changing trends. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1990;99187- 191
PubMed
15.
Gabalski  ECMattucci  KFSetzen  MMoleski  P Ambulatory tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Laryngoscope 1996;10677- 80
PubMedArticle
16.
Tal  ALeiberman  AMargulis  GSofer  S Ventricular dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea: radionuclide assessment. Pediatr Pulmonol 1988;4139- 143
PubMedArticle
17.
Biavati  MJManning  SCPhillips  DL Predictive factors for respiratory complications after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;123517- 521
PubMedArticle
18.
McColley  SAApril  MMCarroll  JLNaclerio  RMLoughlin  GM Respiratory compromise after adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnea. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1992;118940- 943
PubMedArticle
19.
Gerber  MEO'Connor  DMAdler  EMyer  CM  III Selected risk factors in pediatric adenotonsillectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1996;122811- 814
PubMedArticle
20.
Price  SDHawkins  DBKahlstrom  EJ Tonsil and adenoid surgery for airway obstruction: perioperative respiratory morbidity. Ear Nose Throat J 1993;72526- 531
PubMed
21.
Wiatrak  BJMyer  CM  IIIAndrews  TM Complications of adenotonsillectomy in children under 3 years of age. Am J Otolaryngol 1991;12170- 172
PubMedArticle
22.
Wilson  KLakheeram  IMorielli  ABrouillette  RBrown  K Can assessment for obstructive sleep apnea help predict postadenotonsillectomy respiratory complications? Anesthesiology 2002;96313- 322
PubMedArticle
23.
Rosen  GMMuckle  RPMahowald  MWGoding  GSUllevig  C Postoperative respiratory compromise in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: can it be anticipated? Pediatrics 1994;93784- 788
PubMed
24.
Rosen  G Identification and evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea prior to adenotonsillectomy in children: is there a problem? Sleep Med 2003;4273- 274
PubMedArticle
25.
Ruboyianes  JMCruz  RM Pediatric adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea. Ear Nose Throat J 1996;75430- 433
PubMed
26.
Postma  DSFolsom  F The case for an outpatient “approach” for all pediatric tonsillectomies and/or adenoidectomies: a 4-year review of 1419 cases at a community hospital. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;127101- 108
PubMedArticle
27.
Ross  ATKazahaya  KTom  LW Revisiting outpatient tonsillectomy in young children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;128326- 331
PubMedArticle
28.
Brown  OECunningham  MJ Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy Inpatient Guidelines: recommendations of the AAO-HNS Pediatric Otolaryngology Committee. AAO-HNS Bull 1996;151- 4
29.
Mitchell  RBPereira  KDFriedman  NRLazar  RH Outpatient adenotonsillectomy: is it safe in children younger than 3 years? Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;123681- 683
PubMedArticle
30.
Bent  JPApril  MMWard  RFSorin  AReilly  BWeiss  G Ambulatory powered intracapsular tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children younger than 3 years. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;1301197- 1200
PubMedArticle
31.
Mills  NAnderson  BJBarber  C  et al.  Day stay pediatric tonsillectomy: a safe procedure. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2004;681367- 1373
PubMedArticle
32.
Lalakea  MLMarquez-Biggs  IMessner  AH Safety of pediatric short-stay tonsillectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;125749- 752
PubMedArticle
33.
Helfaer  MAMcColley  SAPyzik  PL  et al.  Polysomnography after adenotonsillectomy in mild pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Crit Care Med 1996;241323- 1327
PubMedArticle
34.
Shapiro  NLBhattacharyya  N Complications and determinants of length of stay for inpatient pediatric otolaryngologic procedures. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;129169- 172
PubMedArticle
Original Article
May 2006

Adenotonsillectomy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Young ChildrenPrevalence of Pulmonary Complications

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Departments of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery (Drs Statham and Elluru), Environmental Health (Mr Buncher), and Pediatrics (Dr Kalra), University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio; and Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (Dr Kalra).

Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132(5):476-480. doi:10.1001/archotol.132.5.476
Abstract

Objective  To determine, in a series of children younger than 6 years undergoing adenotonsillectomy for treatment of clinical obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), the effect of age on prevalence of postoperative respiratory complications. The primary objective was to define a practice standard for postoperative hospital admission.

Design  Retrospective analysis.

Setting  Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Patients  All children younger than 6 years who underwent adenotonsillectomy to treat OSAS from June 1, 1999, to May 31, 2001.

Main Outcome Measures  The percentage of children younger than 3 years undergoing adenotonsillectomy to treat OSAS who experience a postoperative respiratory complication.

Results  Of 2315 patients younger than 6 years undergoing an adenotonsillectomy for treatment of OSAS, 149 (6.4%) developed a postoperative respiratory complication. Even though there was a lower incidence of comorbid medical conditions in this cohort, children younger than 3 years were at a greater risk for developing a postoperative respiratory complication compared with those aged 3 to 5 years (9.8% vs 4.9%, P<.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that children younger than 3 years had a nearly 2-fold increased risk for respiratory complications postoperatively (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-2.77) when controlling for race and sex.

Conclusions  Adenotonsillectomy to treat OSAS is associated with a significantly higher rate of postoperative respiratory complication in children younger than 3 years compared with children aged 3 to 5 years. Our results support hospital admission for all patients younger than 3 years undergoing adenotonsillectomy for treatment of OSAS.

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children is characterized by recurrent events of partial or complete upper airway obstruction during sleep, resulting in disruption of normal ventilation and sleep patterns.1,2 If untreated, childhood OSAS may lead to significant morbidity37 and, in rare cases, mortality. These sequelae are the result of chronic nocturnal hypoxemia, acidosis, and sleep fragmentation. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has become an important indication for adenotonsillectomy, which has become the first-line treatment for OSAS in children.2 Several studies8,9 have shown that adenotonsillectomy reverses the symptoms associated with childhood OSAS. Because physicians have increasing awareness of neurocognitive deficits associated with OSAS treated later in childhood,10 more children are now undergoing adenotonsillectomy at a younger age.

Because of advances in anesthetic and surgical techniques, third-party payers often encourage physicians to perform pediatric adenotonsillectomies on an outpatient basis. Altering practice patterns to include children at high risk for postoperative morbidity as candidates for outpatient adenotonsillectomy requires careful examination. With the use of dexamethasone phosphate and ondansetron hydrochloride, perioperative care of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy has improved by reducing postoperative discomfort, improving dietary tolerance, and reducing postoperative emesis.11 By reducing these postoperative complications, respiratory morbidity now accounts for most hospitalizations after adenotonsillectomy for OSAS and is a major factor in determining whether to perform inpatient vs outpatient surgery. The goal of this study is to determine, in a population of children undergoing adenotonsillectomy to treat clinical OSAS, the effect of age on prevalence of postoperative respiratory complications so as to set a more clearly defined practice standard for postadenotonsillectomy hospital admission. Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC) serves as the community hospital for children in Cincinnati, Ohio, and as the tertiary care center for the greater Cincinnati area. Because more than 2500 adenotonsillectomies are performed annually at CCHMC, it is well suited to provide evidence that may guide practice patterns for care of children after adenotonsillectomy.

METHODS
STUDY DESIGN

All children who underwent an adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, or both at CCHMC or its satellite facilities from June 1, 1999, to May 31, 2001, were identified from a medical records database. A search was performed using Current Procedural Terminology codes to determine the type of surgery and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9)12 diagnosis codes to determine the indication for surgery. In this manner, we identified children who had undergone an adenotonsillectomy for obstructive breathing during sleep. A retrospective medical record review was undertaken to describe the children who met the inclusion criteria. The study was approved by the institutional review board at CCHMC.

Exclusion criteria for study enrollment are as follows:

  • Recurrent adenotonsillitis as an indication for adenotonsillectomy.

  • No report of snoring on preoperative history and physical examination.

  • Concurrent surgical procedures that could lead to increase in the duration of general anesthesia.

  • Children with baseline low oxygen saturation or those requiring respiratory support preoperatively.

The presence of obstructive breathing during sleep was determined by a history of snoring and the presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on physical examination by an otolaryngologist. The preoperative physician evaluation history, and physical examination were reviewed to determine the presence of comorbid conditions. Effects of comorbid conditions have been previously reported in children older than 3 years.13 The patients were then stratified by age to establish the prevalence of postoperative respiratory complications in each age group. In this study, the exclusion criteria consisted of recurrent adenotonsillitis as an indication for adenotonsillectomy, no report of snoring on the preoperative physical examination and medical history obtained by the nursing staff, a lack of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on physical examination, any concurrent surgical procedures that could lead to an increase in the duration of general anesthesia, and a baseline preoperative awake hypoxia or the need for respiratory support before surgery.

OPERATIVE PROCEDURE

General anesthesia was induced, and most patients were given balanced gas anesthesia as well as intravenous nondepolarizing paralytics, short-acting narcotics, dexamethasone, and ondansetron at doses appropriate for patient weight. Unless patients were allergic to penicillin, patients received ampicillin intravenously, with the dose adjusted according to patient weight. Tonsillar tissue was removed using monopolar electrocautery, and hemostasis was obtained with suction electrocautery. Adenoid tissue was removed by suction electrocautery. The large number of adenotonsillectomies performed at our institution has resulted in a fairly standardized surgical technique that is followed closely by all attending physicians, fellow physicians, and resident house staff.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

We used SAS software (version 8.2; SAS Inc, Cary, NC) for the statistical analyses. We performed descriptive analysis to calculate mean age and frequency counts of demographic variables and to identify children with postadenotonsillectomy respiratory complications stratified by age and those with comorbid medical conditions. We performed χ2 analysis to compare patient age groups (<3 years and 3-5 years) for differences in percentages according to (1) sex and race and (2) postadenotonsillectomy respiratory complications. We calculated univariate logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors that independently predicted the presence of postoperative respiratory complications in children with OSAS. We then used multiple logistic regression analysis to calculate the odds ratios, which were adjusted for the effects of other risk factors in the model. In all regression analyses, the dependent variable was the occurrence of postoperative respiratory complications. The effect of age on the dependent variable was evaluated in separate models using age as a continuous variable or as a dichotomous variable (<3 years vs 3-5 years). A P value of less than .05 was used to determine statistical significance.

RESULTS

A total of 3404 patients younger than 6 years underwent tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy at CCHMC from May 1999 to June 2001. Obstructive breathing during sleep was the indication for surgery in 2315 children (68%). The 149 children who developed postoperative respiratory complications requiring intervention constituted the study group, and no mortalities were noted among those children.

Of all children with clinical OSAS, 55.3% were boys, and 44.7% were girls; 83.4% were white, and 14.1% were African American. We noted no significant differences in the percentage of patients in the group younger than 3 years and the group who were 3 to 5 years based on race or sex (Table). In analysis of all patients younger than 6 years who experienced respiratory complications, the most common complication was oxygen desaturation, which was seen in 57.7% of patients. Of note, an artificial airway was required for treatment, with 34.0% of patients receiving a nasopharyngeal airway and 8.8% requiring endotracheal intubation. Among the 27 children with complications who had a chest radiograph, the findings for 17 (63%) revealed abnormalities that included atelectasis, infiltrate, and pulmonary edema. Other respiratory complications included the following:

1. Oxygen desaturations below 90%, requiring oxygen supplementation or diuretic therapy.

2. Apnea or increased work of breathing requiring the following interventions:

  • Insertion of nasopharyngeal airway

  • Continuous positive airway pressure

  • Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation

  • Chest radiograph changes of atelectasis, infiltrate, edema, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, or pleural effusion.

Among children younger than 6 years, 58.3% had a history of comorbid medical conditions, and these conditions included asthma (29.5%), history of prematurity (15.4%), obesity (13.4%), central nervous system conditions (7.3%), craniofacial malformations (4.0%), and a history of previous airway surgery (4.0%). Obesity was defined as weight equal to or greater than the 97th percentile for age and sex. It should be noted that fewer children in the group that was younger than 3 years had a comorbid medical condition than those in the 3- to 5-year-old group (51.4% vs 64.9%).

Children younger than 3 years with clinical OSAS were at a greater risk for experiencing postoperative respiratory complications compared with children who were aged 3 to 5 years (9.8% vs 4.9%; P<.001) (Figure). Likewise, comparing 2-year-olds with 3-year-olds yielded a significant increase in prevalence in respiratory complications (P<.02).

Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that children younger than 3 years have a nearly 2-fold increased risk for respiratory complications after adenotonsillectomy for clinical OSAS (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-2.77) when controlling for race and sex. Using age as a continuous variable, for every year the child ages after 1 year the risk of a postoperative respiratory complication is 78% of the risk for each year younger (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.90).

COMMENT

The number of adenotonsillectomies performed annually in the United States decreased from 1.4 million in 1959 to 340 000 in 1985. Chronic infection was the primary surgical indication for adenotonsillectomy in previous decades, whereas now airway obstruction and OSAS have become important preoperative indications for surgery.14 In a recent review of the National Hospital Data Survey from 1995 to 1999,15 adenotonsillectomy remains the most common inpatient otolaryngologic surgical procedure for American children younger than 15 years. Several reports confirm the beneficial effects of adenotonsillectomy for OSAS on children's growth,3 school performance,3 and cardiac function.16

Postoperative respiratory complications have been reported to occur in 5% to 25% of children with OSAS undergoing an adenotonsillectomy.13,1721 These complications include oxygen desaturation, atelectasis, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum, and upper airway obstruction manifested as inspiratory stridor with increased work of breathing. The interventions employed to treat these conditions include oxygen supplementation, nasopharyngeal airway, administration of antibiotics to treat pneumonia, or diuretic therapy to treat pulmonary edema. The increased work of breathing may necessitate respiratory support ranging from continuous positive airway pressure to endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilatory support.

We present the largest young study population with clinical OSAS as the indication for adenotonsillectomy. In this series, the prevalence of postadenotonsillectomy respiratory complications in children with clinical OSAS, over a 2-year period, was 9.8% for children younger than 3 years and 4.9% for children aged 3 to 5 years. Several factors could have contributed to the lower prevalence of posttonsillectomy respiratory complications in our study compared with prevalence rates reported in previous studies.18,22,23 These factors include differences in referral patterns, study population, and diagnostic criteria for OSAS. Our results are in agreement with previous studies that report an increased risk for postoperative respiratory complications in children younger than 3 years.1719,2427 It is important to mention that some of these previous studies were limited by small numbers of patients younger than 3 years17,18,23,25 or included patients with OSAS and chronic adenotonsillitis as an indication for adenotonsillectomy in their case series.19,2628

Advances in anesthetic and surgical techniques have been reported to reduce postoperative morbidity in children undergoing an adenotonsillectomy, and third-party payers often encourage adenotonsillectomy in these patients to be performed on an outpatient basis. Studies15,2933 have shown outpatient adenotonsillectomy to be a safe and cost-effective procedure for many pediatric patients, but some of these studies are limited owing to exclusion of patients with OSAS29 or by small numbers of young pediatric patients.32,33 The use of dexamethasone and ondansetron has improved the perioperative care of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Dexamethasone has been shown to reduce postoperative discomfort, improve dietary tolerance, and almost eliminate postoperative emesis, presumably by reducing the inflammation in the oropharynx.11 With reduction of these postoperative complications, respiratory morbidity now accounts for a major number of hospitalizations after adenotonsillectomy for OSAS. Thus, the risk for postoperative respiratory complications is a major factor in determining whether to perform inpatient vs outpatient surgery. Despite using dexamethasone and ondansetron as a common procedure in all pediatric adenotonsillectomies at CCHMC, postoperative respiratory complications are persistently higher in very young children with OSAS.

To best use health care dollars, it is thus essential to identify which children with OSAS are better suited to undergo inpatient adenotonsillectomy. The presence of comorbid conditions such as asthma, prematurity, and craniofacial malformations have been correlated with occurrence of postoperative respiratory complications,2,13,17,18,23 and as such, inpatient adenotonsillectomy is well accepted in these patients. Even for children without comorbid medical conditions, young age remains a widely accepted risk factor for postoperative respiratory complications.27 In our study population of children with postoperative respiratory complications, 51.4% of children younger than 3 years had a history of comorbid medical conditions, leaving nearly half of these children who experienced a postoperative respiratory complication with no medical history. Despite having no comorbid medical conditions, a large number of young children experienced postoperative respiratory complications, further highlighting young age as a criterion to consider when planning hospital admission. These findings are supported by Shapiro and Bhattacharyya,34 who found outpatient adenotonsillectomy to be less cost-effective than hospital admission in children younger than 3 years (P<.001).

There are some limitations to this study. Parental history of snoring and a diagnosis of adenotonsillar hypertrophy were used as markers for obstructive breathing during sleep. This may have lead to the inclusion of some children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy who do not have objective OSAS, as could be proved with polysomnography. Also, the retrospective design prevents us from determining the association of severity of comorbid conditions with type and severity of postoperative respiratory complications.

In conclusion, treating OSAS with adenotonsillectomy is associated with postoperative respiratory complications in about 10% of children younger than 3 years in our study group. The prevalence of postoperative respiratory complications is significantly higher in children younger than 3 years compared with children aged 3 to 5 years. This study provides additional evidence for guidelines from the Academy of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery promoting inpatient adenotonsillectomy in patients younger than 3 years.

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Article Information

Correspondence: Maninder Kalra, MD, MS, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (maninder.kalra@cchmc.org).

Submitted for Publication: October 11, 2005; final revision received January 11, 2006; accepted January 18, 2006.

Financial Disclosure: None.

References
1.
Carroll  JL Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing in children: new controversies, new directions. Clin Chest Med 2003;24261- 282
PubMedArticle
2.
Schechter  MS Technical report: diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics 2002;109e69
PubMedArticle
3.
Gozal  D Morbidity of obstructive sleep apnea in children: facts and theory. Sleep Breath 2001;535- 42
PubMedArticle
4.
Amin  RSKimball  TRBean  JA  et al.  Left ventricular hypertrophy and abnormal ventricular geometry in children and adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;1651395- 1399
PubMedArticle
5.
Marcus  CLGreene  MGCarroll  JL Blood pressure in children with obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;1571098- 1103
PubMedArticle
6.
Amin  RSCarroll  JLJeffries  JL  et al.  Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure in children with sleep-disordered breathing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;169950- 956
PubMedArticle
7.
Amin  RSKimball  TRKalra  M  et al.  Left ventricular function in children with sleep-disordered breathing. Am J Cardiol 2005;95801- 804
PubMedArticle
8.
Friedman  BCHendeles-Amitai  AKozminsky  E  et al.  Adenotonsillectomy improves neurocognitive function in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep 2003;26999- 1005
PubMed
9.
Stradling  JRThomas  GWarley  ARWilliams  PFreeland  A Effect of adenotonsillectomy on nocturnal hypoxaemia, sleep disturbance, and symptoms in snoring children. Lancet 1990;335249- 253
PubMedArticle
10.
Gozal  DPope  DW  Jr Snoring during early childhood and academic performance at ages thirteen to fourteen years. Pediatrics 2001;1071394- 1399
PubMedArticle
11.
Steward  DLWelge  JAMyer  CM Do steroids reduce morbidity of tonsillectomy? meta-analysis of randomized trials. Laryngoscope 2001;1111712- 1718
PubMedArticle
12.
World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9).  Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1977
13.
Kalra  MBuncher  RAmin  RS Asthma as a risk factor for respiratory complications after adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive breathing during sleep. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2005;94549- 552
PubMedArticle
14.
Rosenfeld  RMGreen  RP Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy: changing trends. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1990;99187- 191
PubMed
15.
Gabalski  ECMattucci  KFSetzen  MMoleski  P Ambulatory tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Laryngoscope 1996;10677- 80
PubMedArticle
16.
Tal  ALeiberman  AMargulis  GSofer  S Ventricular dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea: radionuclide assessment. Pediatr Pulmonol 1988;4139- 143
PubMedArticle
17.
Biavati  MJManning  SCPhillips  DL Predictive factors for respiratory complications after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;123517- 521
PubMedArticle
18.
McColley  SAApril  MMCarroll  JLNaclerio  RMLoughlin  GM Respiratory compromise after adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnea. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1992;118940- 943
PubMedArticle
19.
Gerber  MEO'Connor  DMAdler  EMyer  CM  III Selected risk factors in pediatric adenotonsillectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1996;122811- 814
PubMedArticle
20.
Price  SDHawkins  DBKahlstrom  EJ Tonsil and adenoid surgery for airway obstruction: perioperative respiratory morbidity. Ear Nose Throat J 1993;72526- 531
PubMed
21.
Wiatrak  BJMyer  CM  IIIAndrews  TM Complications of adenotonsillectomy in children under 3 years of age. Am J Otolaryngol 1991;12170- 172
PubMedArticle
22.
Wilson  KLakheeram  IMorielli  ABrouillette  RBrown  K Can assessment for obstructive sleep apnea help predict postadenotonsillectomy respiratory complications? Anesthesiology 2002;96313- 322
PubMedArticle
23.
Rosen  GMMuckle  RPMahowald  MWGoding  GSUllevig  C Postoperative respiratory compromise in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: can it be anticipated? Pediatrics 1994;93784- 788
PubMed
24.
Rosen  G Identification and evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea prior to adenotonsillectomy in children: is there a problem? Sleep Med 2003;4273- 274
PubMedArticle
25.
Ruboyianes  JMCruz  RM Pediatric adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea. Ear Nose Throat J 1996;75430- 433
PubMed
26.
Postma  DSFolsom  F The case for an outpatient “approach” for all pediatric tonsillectomies and/or adenoidectomies: a 4-year review of 1419 cases at a community hospital. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;127101- 108
PubMedArticle
27.
Ross  ATKazahaya  KTom  LW Revisiting outpatient tonsillectomy in young children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;128326- 331
PubMedArticle
28.
Brown  OECunningham  MJ Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy Inpatient Guidelines: recommendations of the AAO-HNS Pediatric Otolaryngology Committee. AAO-HNS Bull 1996;151- 4
29.
Mitchell  RBPereira  KDFriedman  NRLazar  RH Outpatient adenotonsillectomy: is it safe in children younger than 3 years? Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;123681- 683
PubMedArticle
30.
Bent  JPApril  MMWard  RFSorin  AReilly  BWeiss  G Ambulatory powered intracapsular tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children younger than 3 years. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;1301197- 1200
PubMedArticle
31.
Mills  NAnderson  BJBarber  C  et al.  Day stay pediatric tonsillectomy: a safe procedure. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2004;681367- 1373
PubMedArticle
32.
Lalakea  MLMarquez-Biggs  IMessner  AH Safety of pediatric short-stay tonsillectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;125749- 752
PubMedArticle
33.
Helfaer  MAMcColley  SAPyzik  PL  et al.  Polysomnography after adenotonsillectomy in mild pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Crit Care Med 1996;241323- 1327
PubMedArticle
34.
Shapiro  NLBhattacharyya  N Complications and determinants of length of stay for inpatient pediatric otolaryngologic procedures. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;129169- 172
PubMedArticle
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