Acute disease of the peripheral arteries is rare in children. It may be a sequel of an infectious disease, especially of typhoid, syphilis, pneumonia, influenza and rheumatism. It may follow trauma or result from embolism in the course of cardiac disease. The affected artery may become inflamed, with or without a consequent obliteration of its lumen. In the former case, unless rapid collateration circulation is established, gangrene of the parts supplied by the vessel results.
The symptoms in these cases consist of fever, swelling of the affected vessel, severe pain, numbness and tingling along its course, diminution of vascular pulsation, and if occlusion takes place, dry gangrene. In congenital syphilis, distinct changes have been found in the aorta and peripheral vessels and Spirochaete pallida have been demonstrated in the vascular coats.1 In rare instances in infants, all the arteries are involved and the smaller vessels may be obliterated. The
GILKEY HM, DENNIE CC. SYPHILITIC ENDARTERITIS IN CHILDREN. Am J Dis Child. 1926;31(4):483-485. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1926.04130040026005