While secondary anemia in the new-born is not an uncommon observation, primary anemia is extremely rare, according to reports in medical literature.
The first case was reported by Ecklin1 in 1919. Blood examination made on the twelfth day showed: hemoglobin, 32 per cent; erythrocytes, 2,500,000, and leukocytes, 40,000. The family history in this case was important as a possible cause for the anemia, in that the father had heart disease, the mother suffered from grip and bronchitis while six months pregnant, and there was an indefinite history of the death of several infants (one of an infant 3 days old) before the birth of the patient. There was a normal blood picture at the age of 7 months.
In the second case, reported by Sustrunk2 in 1924, the first blood count made on the third day showed marked anemia. The patient died at 10 days of age. Necropsy
GELSTON CF, SAPPINGTON EE. PRIMARY ANEMIA IN THE NEW-BORN. Am J Dis Child. 1930;39(4):807-813. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1930.01930160125013