The various diagnostic tuberculin tests are the outcome of the introduction of tuberculin by Koch in 1890. In 1907 Pirquet evolved the cutaneous scratch method, and in the same year Moro developed the "percutaneous" or inunction method, and Wolff-Eisner and Calmette the conjunctival modification. The intracutaneous test of Mantoux, now so widely used, was described in 1908. In 1909, Hamburger and Monti added the "Stich" or "subcutaneous" test. No other innovations are noted until 1916, when Craig1 described a "multiple puncture test," an adaptation of Hill's technic for smallpox vaccination. In 1927 Stewart2 proposed a "single puncture" test, which yielded results identical with those obtained with the Pirquet test.
For a number of years the Pirquet test, because of the simplicity of its technic, enjoyed the widest popularity. Comparison of results with the cutaneous and the Mantoux methods demonstrated the unquestioned superiority of the intracutaneous method. On the
FRIEDMAN E, BLACK MH, ESSERMAN AL. RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE USE OF VARIOUS TUBERCULIN TESTS. Am J Dis Child. 1933;45(1):58-65. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1933.01950140068007