Kala-azar is rare in the United States. Only 3 cases in children have thus far been reported in the American literature.
The first case in this country was recorded by Talbot and Lyons1 in 1918. Their patient was a Greek child who presented the classic symptoms. Nonspecific treatment, including administration of iron, was tried without success. Transfusion was given, and splenectomy was performed. Temporary improvement followed. Finally antimony and potassium tartrate was given intravenously, with marked improvement in the general condition and relief of specific symptoms.
In 1922, Faber and Schussler2 reported a case of systemic leishmaniasis in a child of 3 years. The patient came from Italy about six months before the onset of the illness. Following the establishment of the diagnosis, intravenous injections of antimony and potassium tartrate were given with satisfactory results.
In 1925, Wollstein3 reported the third case. The patient was a child,
GINANDES GJ. KALA-AZAR IN CHILDREN. Am J Dis Child. 1934;48(6):1336-1366. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1934.01960190156017