Perhaps the commonest disease depicted in the paintings of the earlier artists is rickets, and there are few better examples than the Madonna and Child seen in the illustration. The painting is by Dario da Trevigo, a great friend and a pupil of Mantegna, and was painted in 1459. The enlargements of the ends of the long bones and the large square head are unmistakable. In addition, there is definite exophthalmos, the origin of which of course is doubtful, but the left eyeball is so much larger than the right that it suggests congenital glaucoma.
RUHRÄH J. RICKETS AND EXOPHTHALMOS. Am J Dis Child. 1935;50(6):1559. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1935.01970120211016