Hypertension has long been known to occur in certain cases of glomerulonephritis and in cases of chronic urinary obstruction. Not until comparatively recently, however, was hypertension reported in association with pyelonephritis. Löhlein,1 in 1917, reported the cases of 2 young women who died of uremia; in each of these cases the blood pressure was elevated and there were only moderate amounts of albumin in the urine, with many leukocytes and no casts.
Quinby2 apparently reported the first case of a child with hypertension and associated pyelonephritis. The patient was a boy 14 years of age. The blood pressure, measured in millimeters of mercury, was 250 systolic and 170 diastolic. A large, nonfunctioning, hydronephrotic right kidney was removed, after which the blood pressure fell to 138 mm. of mercury systolic and 90 diastolic.
In 1937 Butler3 reported a series of 15 cases; 6 of the patients were dead,
KIMMEL GC. HYPERTENSION AND PYELONEPHRITIS OF CHILDREN. Am J Dis Child. 1942;63(1):60-75. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1942.02010010061005