Leukemia in the newborn is rare and unique in that it is almost invariably of the myelogenous type. Kelsey and Anderson,1 in a comprehensive survey of the literature up to 1939, collected 17 reported cases of congenital leukemia. Of these, they accepted only 9 as instances of unquestionable congenital leukemia, the remaining 8 cases being probable examples of unsuspected erythroblastosis fetalis or leukemoid responses secondary to infection. Of the 9 verified cases of congenital leukemia, 8 were of the myelogenous type, only 1 being lymphogenous. Kelsey and Anderson reported an additional case of verified congenital myelogenous leukemia. Further reports of cases,2 all of the myelogenous type, have appeared since. It is of considerable interest that the illness of the infant reported on by Keith,2e which died at the age of 16 months, followed a course not unlike that usually seen in older infants with leukemia.
TAYLOR FM, GEPPERT LJ. CONGENITAL MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA. Am J Dis Child. 1950;80(3):417-422. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1950.04040020428008