The occurrence in the hospital within a comparatively short space of time of several unusual examples of sudden myocardial failure in very young children has led us to make this communication. There seems little doubt that heart failure not due to congenital cardiac malformations or to diphtheria is a rare condition in children under 5 years of age. Whereas such cases have attracted attention chiefly from an etiologic standpoint, they likewise afford considerable interest both diagnostically and therapeutically.
Poynton1 has emphasized the rarity of the first attacks of rheumatic carditis being fatal and has given brief histories of the cases of three children under 5 years of age observed in his clinic. Diagnosis did not offer any difficulties, as one or more of the usual extracardiac rheumatic manifestations were present. Death occurred within a few weeks after the onset of symptoms. He regards primary carditis with failure as one
ROTHMAN PE, LEONARD BW. CARDIAC FAILURE IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS OF AGEWITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ACUTE RHEUMATIC MYOCARDITIS. Am J Dis Child. 1928;35(1):1–8. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1928.01920190008001