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Original Investigation
Journal Club
February 2016

Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children

Journal Club PowerPoint Slide Download
Author Affiliations
  • 1Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada
  • 2Research Unit on Medications and Pregnancy, Research Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Québec, Canada
  • 3Centre d'excellence en Troubles Envahissants du Développement de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada
  • 4Département de Psychiatrie, Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, Montréal, Québec, Canada
  • 5Centre de Recherche de l'Institut Universitaire de Psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada
  • 6Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada
JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(2):117-124. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3356
Abstract

Importance  The association between the use of antidepressants during gestation and the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children is still controversial. The etiology of ASD remains unclear, although studies have implicated genetic predispositions, environmental risk factors, and maternal depression.

Objective  To examine the risk of ASD in children associated with antidepressant use during pregnancy according to trimester of exposure and taking into account maternal depression.

Design, Setting, and Participants  We conducted a register-based study of an ongoing population-based cohort, the Québec Pregnancy/Children Cohort, which includes data on all pregnancies and children in Québec from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2009. A total of 145 456 singleton full-term infants born alive and whose mothers were covered by the Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec drug plan for at least 12 months before and during pregnancy were included. Data analysis was conducted from October 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015.

Exposures  Antidepressant exposure during pregnancy was defined according to trimester and specific antidepressant classes.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Children with ASD were defined as those with at least 1 diagnosis of ASD between date of birth and last date of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted hazard ratios with 95% CIs.

Results  During 904 035.50 person-years of follow-up, 1054 children (0.7%) were diagnosed with ASD; boys with ASD outnumbered girls by a ratio of about 4:1. The mean (SD) age of children at the end of follow-up was 6.24 (3.19) years. Adjusting for potential confounders, use of antidepressants during the second and/or third trimester was associated with the risk of ASD (31 exposed infants; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.15-3.04). Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during the second and/or third trimester was significantly associated with an increased risk of ASD (22 exposed infants; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.20-3.93). The risk was persistent even after taking into account maternal history of depression (29 exposed infants; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.03-2.97).

Conclusions and Relevance  Use of antidepressants, specifically selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, during the second and/or third trimester increases the risk of ASD in children, even after considering maternal depression. Further research is needed to specifically assess the risk of ASD associated with antidepressant types and dosages during pregnancy.

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