Preclinical studies1- 3 in young animals have demonstrated neurodegeneration and subsequent neurocognitive impairment for virtually all clinically available general anesthetic drugs. However, comparative human studies on this issue are scarce and inconclusive.
Hansen TG, Engelhardt T, Weiss M. The Relevance of Anesthetic Drug–Induced Neurotoxicity. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(1):e163481. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.3481