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The Pediatric Forum
November 3, 2008

Strong Design and Comprehensive Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Study—Reply

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(11):1101. doi:10.1001/archpedi.162.11.1101

In reply

The most widely accepted causal relationship in the behavioral sciences is smoking and lung cancer. Support for this inference is completely based on observational studies with critical attention to substantive knowledge and the well-known causal criteria of gradient (dose-response), consistency and specificity of observed effects, magnitude, and coherence, which is assessed through the identification of causal mechanisms.1 Applied to interventions, such comprehensive analysis is consistent with confirmatory evaluation.2

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