PNEUMOCYSTOSIS, NEUMOCYSTOSIS, in epidemic form, has not been observed in the United States with the frequency recorded in Europe. However, isolated cases—especially in connection with underlying lymphomatous diseases and corticosteroid therapy and after the use of radiation or cytotoxic drugs—are more common on this continent than any place else. Pneumocystis carinii has so far, resisted all attempts at culturing, and its exact position in taxonomy is not established. Most observers lean towards a protozoan rather than mycotic position for the agent.
Disease in Europe.—Cyst-like organisms were detected in smears of animal lungs by Chagas1 and Carini2 in Brazil more than 50 years ago. Because of the presence of such cysts, the disease is known as pneumocystosis, as well as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Forty years later Vaněk and Jírovec3 and Giese4 recognized similar structures in the alveolar content of the lungs of infants with interstitial
Salfelder K, Schwarz J. PneumocystosisCurrent Concepts and Recent Advances. Am J Dis Child. 1967;114(6):693–699. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1967.02090270149023