Schizophrenia in infancy, childhood, and adolescence comprises a group of related and overlapping syndromes characterized by withdrawal, regression, and dissociation. Diagnostic criteria include (1) withdrawal from the environment, (2) disturbance of thought and speech, (3) inappropriate affect, (4) alteration in mobility, (5) disorientation, (6) preoccupation, (7) retardation, (8) disintegration of body image, (9) resistance to change, and (10) anxiety. About 1.9% of schizophrenic patients are less than 15 years old. The condition probably results from a combination of organic and psychogenic factors. Patients respond poorly to treatment; about one third achieve some social adjustment. There is no correlation between prognosis and therapy used, but apparently the earlier the disorder appears, the worse is the outlook.
Chan JCM, Fras I, Wilson MR, Moeller HG. Schizophrenia in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence. Am J Dis Child. 1971;121(6):538-542. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1971.02100170120023