Sixty-eight (5.5%) of 1,210 inner-city school children ranging in age from 5 to 8 years were found to have microcythemia (mean corpuscular volume less than 77 cu μ) unassociated with hemoglobinopathy, β thalassemia trait, lead intoxication, chronic infection, or chronic blood loss. Such microcythemia was found to be associated with cultural characteristics of chronic poverty, and a presumptive diagnosis of iron deficiency was made. Hematologic evaluation of inner-city families showed that when the school age child was iron deficient it was likely that the mother and siblings were also iron deficient.
Karp RJ, Haaz WS, Starko K, Gorman JM. Iron Deficiency in Families of Iron-Deficient Inner-City School Children. Am J Dis Child. 1974;128(1):18-20. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1974.02110260020004