The efficacy of various routes of administration of rubella vaccine RA27/3 was evaluated in a group of children. The vaccinees were randomly divided into three groups: subcutaneous, nose drop, and aerosol spray. Immunization was evaluated in terms of serum antibody rise and clinical side effects.
Seroconversion was achieved in 100% of the children with no significant difference in the geometric mean titers of serum antibody in the various groups. Thus, respiratory tract immunization of small children with rubella vaccine RA27/3 is equally effective, compared to the subcutaneous route, in stimulating serum antibody. Side effects occurred in only 4% of the vaccinees in each group, the symptoms being mild and transient. We believe local immunization is less painful than subcutaneous injection and is an acceptable technique for mass administration of the vaccine in children.
Ganguly R, Durrer B, Waldman RH. Rubella Virus Immunization of Preschool Children via the Respiratory Tract. Am J Dis Child. 1974;128(6):821-823. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1974.02110310069012