The condition of diffuse angiomatoid change in the liver known as peliosis hepatis is uncommon, with only eight cases reported in infancy and childhood.1 While the etiology remains obscure, anabolic steroids have recently been implicated in certain instances.2-4 We report a further and most unusual case, in a child with aplastic anemia treated with oxymetholone, in which the peliotic process involved both the liver and spleen. Death was due to the rupture of a peliotic lesion on the surface of the spleen. Of additional interest was the presence of chronic persistent hepatitis demonstrated to be due to hepatitis B antigen.
Report of a Case.—This male patient developed idiopathic aplastic anemia at the age of 9 years (June 1970). His initial corticosteroid therapy (prednisone 10 to 60 mg/day) was supplemented with oxymetholone (25 to 100 mg/day) and he received a total of 80 grams over the next five-years.
BENJAMIN DR, SHUNK B. A Fatal Case of Peliosis of the Liver and Spleen. Am J Dis Child. 1978;132(2):207-208. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1978.02120270105023