• As shown in a total of 43,492 live-born singleton infants, the proportion of low and depressed Apgar scores is related to the extent of maternal cigarette usage during pregnancy. In particular, the three-pack level of smoking (41 to 60 cigarettes per day) is reflected in a near-quadrupling of low and depressed one-minute and five-minute Apgar scores in both blacks and whites and also after exclusion of prematurely born infants.
(Am J Dis Child 1981;135:503-506)
Garn SM, Johnston M, Ridella SA, Petzold AS. Effect of Maternal Cigarette Smoking on Apgar Scores. Am J Dis Child. 1981;135(6):503-506. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1981.02130300003003