April 1982

Acute Leukemia in a Patient With Down's Syndrome and Transient Congenital Leukemia

Author Affiliations

Cardinal Glennon Memorial Hospital for Children St Louis

Am J Dis Child. 1982;136(4):367. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1982.03970400085023

The incidence of acute leukemia in children with Down's syndrome has been reported to be as high as 30 times that of the general population.1 A disorder with a hematologic picture indistinguishable from congenital leukemia also has been reported in newborns with Down's syndrome.2-4 However, complete, long-term remission was observed in these patients without any specific treatment.2-4 The following case illustrates a patient with Down's syndrome in whom acute leukemia developed one year after spontaneous remission of transient congenital leukemia.

See also p 310.

Report of a Case.—A newborn boy with Down's syndrome was transferred to Cardinal Glennon Memorial Hospital for Children, St Louis, because of an abnormal blood cell count. His blood cell count revealed a hemoglobin level of 18 g/dL, corrected WBC count of 23,000/cu mm, with 11% blast forms, 140 nucleated RBCs per 100 WBCs, and a platelet count of 124,000/cu mm.

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