• Twelve children with urolithiasis or unexplained episodes of gross hematuria, hypercalciuria, and normal serum calcium levels were examined with an oral calcium loading test. Eight patients displayed elevated fasting urinary calcium excretion, consistent with renal hypercalciuria; four exhibited normal fasting calcium excretion, which increased excessively with calcium loading, suggesting hyperabsorption of intestinal calcium. Evidence of secondary hyperparathyroidism was detected in three children with renal hypercalciuria on the basis of urinary cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) excretion. Serum calcium concentrations obtained four hours after loading increased significantly in children with renal hypercalciuria and were directly correlated with fasting urinary calcium excretion. Among patients with renal hypercalciuria, serum calcium level was higher in patients with normal fasting cAMP excretion. These results suggest that hyperabsorption of intestinal calcium occurs in renal hypercalciuria and may account for the lower-than-predicted incidence of secondary hyperparathyroidism in these patients. Idiopathic hypercalciuria may arise from one fundamental metabolic disturbance with varying degrees of expression, rather than from two separate pathogenic mechanisms.
Hymes LC, Warshaw BL. Idiopathic HypercalciuriaRenal and Absorptive Subtypes in Children. Am J Dis Child. 1984;138(2):176–180. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1984.02140400058014