• The renal status of 60 children (15 male and 45 female) with systemic lupus erythematosus seen over a 21-year period was evaluated clinically and by renal biopsy. The occurrence of serious clinical renal disease at initial observation, more severe renal impairment at outcome, and diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis were more common in male than in female patients. Although lupus is relatively uncommon in male subjects, our epidemiologic study shows that there is a sex difference in the severity of lupus nephritis, with male subjects being more severely affected than female subjects.
Celermajer DS, Thorner PS, Baumal R, Arbus GS. Sex Differences in Childhood Lupus Nephritis. Am J Dis Child. 1984;138(6):586-588. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1984.02140440070018