• In a pilot study of relatives of infants with hypoplastic left-heart syndrome (HLHS), we obtained a medical history, cardiovascular examination, and echocardiogram in 48 first-degree relatives of 11 probands with isolated HLHS and 3 with HLHS and noncardiac malformations. Echocardiography confirmed heart defects in 5 of 41 relatives of patients with isolated HLHS. In four instances, the cardiac abnormality was unrecognized. Among 7 relatives of infants with HLHS and extracardiac anomalies, no heart defects were detected. Cardiac defects occurred in first-degree relatives of probands at a frequency higher than previously predicted by an additive multifactorial model of inheritance. These findings suggest that first-degree relatives of HLHS probands may have an increased risk for subclinical cardiac defects and that genetic factors likely contribute to the cause of left-heart blood-flow lesions.
Brenner JI, Berg KA, Schneider DS, Clark EB, Boughman JA. Cardiac Malformations in Relatives of Infants With Hypoplastic Left-Heart Syndrome. Am J Dis Child. 1989;143(12):1492–1494. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1989.02150240114030