• Six preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia were nasotracheally intubated for 68 to 243 days. Gestational age at birth ranged from 24 to 35 weeks. Endotracheal tube size was changed to account for growth and varied from 2.5 to 4.0 mm. These infants developed features of midfacial hypoplasia, namely, depressed nasal bridge, small-tipped nose, long philtrum, underdeveloped malar areas, and carplike mouth. These features have not been associated with long-term intubation in premature infants. We suggest that features of prolonged nasotracheal intubation, such as direct compression by the tube and the method of tube fixation, decreased air flow through the developing nares and sinuses and reduced faciomuscular activity, resulting in the observed midfacial hypoplasia. The degree to which growth corrects these deformations is unknown.
Rotschild A, Dison PJ, Chitayat D, Solimano A. Midfacial Hypoplasia Associated With Long-term Intubation for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. Am J Dis Child. 1990;144(12):1302-1306. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1990.02150360024012