To determine the incidence of tics or dyskinesias (T/D) and examine associated clinical factors in children treated with stimulant medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Cross-sectional analysis of a clinic cohort with chart review.
Hospital-based clinical service within a division of developmental and behavioral pediatrics.
One hundred twenty-two children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder treated with stimulant medication. All children currently or recently treated were included.
Measurements and Results:
Determinations were made of medication used, medication dosage, presence or absence of T/D, time of T/D onset, and history and family history of T/D. Incidence of T/D was 9.0% of children or 8.2% of medication trials. One child (0.8%) had development of Tourette's syndrome. Age, medication, dosage, history of tics, or family history of tics was not related to onset of T/D.
Approximately 9% of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder treated with stimulant medication had development of T/D, predominantly transient in nature, with less than 1% having development of chronic tics or Tourette's syndrome. Personal or family tic history, medication selection, or dosage was not related to onset of T/D.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148:859-861)
Lipkin PH, Goldstein IJ, Adesman AR. Tics and Dyskinesias Associated With Stimulant Treatment in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148(8):859-861. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1994.02170080089017