To determine the prevalence of cocaine and opiate metabolites in the urine of young urban and suburban children.
Urban and suburban emergency departments and private pediatric practices.
A convenience sample of 1469 children between 1 and 60 months of age who required a urinalysis for investigation of the chief complaint.
Main Outcome Measures:
Urine was screened for benzoylecgonine and opiates using an enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique and a fluorescence-polarization immunoassay, both with a sensitivity of 50 ng/mL.
Benzoylecogonine was identified in the urine of 45 children (3.1%) (95% CI, 2.2% to 3.9%) and opiates in the urine of 38 children (2.6%) (95% CI, 1.8% to 3.4%). No difference was observed between urban and suburban health care facilities in the percentage of patients whose urine tested positive for benzoylecgonine (29 of 1011 vs 16 of 458, P=.6) or opiates (28 of 1011 vs 10 of 458, P=.6)
Exposure to illicit drugs, as reflected by urinary metabolites, is similar for urban and suburban children.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149:1362-1364)
Rosenberg NM, Marino D, Meert KL, Kauffman RF. Comparison of Cocaine and Opiate Exposures Between Young Urban and Suburban Children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149(12):1362-1364. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1995.02170250068012