Lozoff et al1 demonstrated the persistent negative effects of iron deficiency in infancy on a cohort of children from Costa Rica that the researchers observed through age 19 years. In their recent study, they showed that cognitive scores remained lower in children who were iron deficient in infancy compared with those who were iron sufficient. This finding was more notable in children of lower socioeconomic status, hence the double burden on these children.
Petrone LR. Iron Deficiency, Lead Poisoning, and Development. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(5):523-524. doi:10.1001/archpedi.161.5.523-a