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This Month in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
Mar 2012

This Month in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(3):205-206. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.519

In a 10-year follow-up of a large randomized, controlled trial of 6-month-old infants, Lozoff et alArticle found that the iron-fortified group infants scored lower on every 10-year outcome (significant for spatial memory and visual-motor integration; suggestive for IQ, arithmetic achievement, visual perception, and motor coordination) compared with the low-iron formula infants.

Hamdan et alArticle found that children of parents who died because of an accident, suicide, or sudden natural death had higher health risk behaviors (HRBs) during the 33-month period after the death when compared with control subjects. This association between HRBs and bereavement is consistent with the view that a broad range of family adversities, bereavement among them, can lead to increased HRBs.

Kolko et alArticle found that collaborative care with primary care physicians and case managers and for children with behavior problems led to higher use of counseling, better medication management, greater symptom reduction, and improved satisfaction for both patients and health care providers.

There was a steady decline in the incidence of acute gastroenteritis during the 2 seasons following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine. However, no difference in episodes of acute gastroenteritis was detected in this network between immunized and nonimmunized children in 2008, according to Nolan et alArticle.

Ozer et alArticle found that while there are currently no specific clinical preventive guidelines for young adults, there are a broad number of recommendations, many supported by sufficient evidence to receive a US Preventive Service Task Force grade of A or B, that can inform the care of young adults. The authors call for the establishment of young adult preventive health guidelines that reflect the current evidence-based recommendations that overlap with the young adult age group.

An evaluation by Ezendam et alArticle of the web-based computer-tailored intervention aiming to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behavior, and promote healthy eating to contribute to the prevention of excessive weight gain among adolescents found that it had short-term effects on diet such as beverage and snack intake. However, it had no effect on body mass index or waist circumference.

An analysis of policies in 40 states by Taber et alArticle found that, while producing positive changes in the school food environment, there was no association between state policy and the amount of sugar-sweetened beverages consumed by fifth- and eighth-grade students. School is only 1 aspect of a child's environment though, and youth have proven to be very adept at compensating for individual changes to their environment.

Paul et alArticle found that while a home visit by a nurse within 2 days of discharge after delivery increased the proportion of mothers successfully breastfeeding at 2 weeks and 2 months, there was no difference in continuation of breastfeeding at 6 months nor on emergency department or unplanned outpatient visits.

Physicians, Dickens scholars, and historians have tried to diagnose the condition that affected Tiny Tim in A Christmas Carol. ChesneyArticle posits that an examination of the environment of London of 1820 to 1843 (when the novella was written) indicates that Tiny Tim likely suffered from rickets and tuberculosis, both common among his peers and reversed by vitamin D in cod liver oil.

This review by Cortina et alArticle estimated that 1 in 7 children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa has an identifiable mental health problem, with no differences by sex or urban-rural location. Mental health needs should be a critical component of overall health care planning in Africa.

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