Edmiston et alArticle found that exposure to childhood maltreatment was associated with corticostriatal-limbic gray matter reductions in adolescents. These findings suggest that even if adolescents reporting childhood maltreatment exposure do not present with symptoms that meet full criteria for psychiatric disorders, they may have corticostriatal-limbic gray matter changes that place them at risk for behavioral difficulties.
According to Powell et alArticle, from 2003 to 2009, children's exposure to food and beverage products high in saturated fat, sugar, or sodium fell 37.9% among 2- to 5-year-olds and 27.7% among 6- to 11-year-olds. Nevertheless, in 2009, 86% of the food and beverage advertisements seen by children were for products high in these substances. Exposure to fast-food advertisements continues to increase.
Robbins et alArticle found that, across age groups, more males (73.8%) reported masturbation than females (48.1%). Masturbation was associated with numerous partnered sexual behaviors in both males and females. In males, masturbation was associated with condom use, but in females it was not.
In this study by Sekhar et alArticle, 26.4% of adolescents failed pure-tone threshold testing, which was substantially more sensitive than rapid hearing screens. Self-reported headphone use with an MP3 player was associated with a 3- to 4-fold greater risk of hearing loss compared with use of earbuds or stereo connection/docking systems.
This study by Carroll et alArticle demonstrated that the majority of adolescents seeking care in a pediatric emergency department report a history of teen dating violence, both in terms of perpetration (59.4%) and victimization (54.8%), with past-year experiences of violence similar to lifetime experiences. The rates of victimization and perpetration were similar for boys and girls. Simply providing written materials suggesting follow-up does not lead to adolescents accessing these resources.
In this large population-based study of children and adolescents by Schneider-Lindner et alArticle, the rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 4.5 per 100 000 per year. Use of an antibiotic in the prior 150 days was associated with a 3.5-fold increased rate of infection; the rate ratio increased with the number of antibiotics received. The rate ratio was particularly elevated for quinolones at 14.8 (95% CI, 3.9-55.8), with wide variation among antibacterial classes.
Kim et alArticle found that nebulized racemic epinephrine delivered by helium-oxygen followed by helium-oxygen inhalation therapy delivered by high-flow nasal cannula was associated with a greater degree of clinical improvement compared with that delivered by oxygen among infants with bronchiolitis in the emergency department. However, there was no difference between the 2 groups in readiness to discharge.
In this study of 3234 nulliparous pregnant women by Andraweera et alArticle, presence of the VEGFA +936 C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism in the mother was associated with abnormal umbilical artery flow on Doppler. Presence of the polymorphism in the neonate was associated with a 60% increased risk of being small for gestational age (SGA) and a 3.5-fold increased risk of SGA babies having abnormal umbilical artery flow. This gene may have a role in the pathogenesis of being SGA.
This Month in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(12):1062. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.504