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This Month in Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
August 2006

This Month in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160(8):769. doi:10.1001/archpedi.160.8.769
Randomized Controlled Trial Testing an HIV Prevention Intervention for Latino Youth

Despite the high risk of sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection among Latino adolescents, few controlled intervention studies have been conducted with this population. This randomized controlled trial in 553 Latino adolescents aged 13 to 18 years tested the efficacy of a cultural- and theory-based intervention delivered by adult facilitators to small groups of adolescents. It was designed to reduce sexual risk behavior. The intervention was successful in reducing the number of adolescents with multiple sexual partners and the number of days of unprotected intercourse and in increasing the consistent use of condoms. The effects of the intervention were greatest among those whose primary language was Spanish.

Figure.
Consistent condom use in the past 3 months.

Consistent condom use in the past 3 months.

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Are Household Firearms Stored Less Safely in Homes With Adolescents?

Firearms continue to be a major source of mortality for adolescents, accounting for the majority of adolescent suicides and homicides in this country. Firearms are kept in approximately one third of homes in which children and youth reside. In this random national survey, Johnson and colleagues found that guns kept in households with teenagers were 48% more likely to be stored unlocked, 25% more likely to be stored loaded, and 43% more likely to be stored both unlocked and loaded than are guns kept in households with younger children. This represents an important preventable risk for violent death in youth.

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Parental Report of Health Conditions and Health Care Use Among Children With and Without Autism

Gurney and colleagues used data from the National Survey of Children's Health to examine the extent to which children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have, according to parental report, a higher prevalence of common childhood conditions and health care use than children without an ASD. Children with an ASD had a significantly higher prevalence of depression or anxiety problems and behavioral or conduct problems and reported more respiratory, skin, and food allergies than children without an ASD. These children had higher health care use, especially for physical, occupational, and speech therapy. They were much more likely to need behavioral counseling and to be using long-term medications. The responsibilities that parents bear as they manage the diverse needs of their children with an ASD are enormous.

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Impact of Staffing on Bloodstream Infections in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units have the highest rate of healthcare-associated infections in the pediatric population. Few studies have examined whether nurse staffing ratios are associated with bloodstream infections in this population. In this study of 2675 infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units for more than 48 hours, 224 had a bloodstream infection. The risk of infection was highest for the smallest infants and for those with peripherally inserted central venous catheters that were in place for longer periods of time. A greater number of registered nursing hours was associated with a markedly lower risk of infection.

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