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This Month in Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
December 2003

This Month in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157(12):1149. doi:10.1001/archpedi.157.12.1149
Effect of Orange and Apple Juices on Iron Absorption in Children

Despite the widespread use of iron-fortified formulas, iron deficiency is still a relatively common occurrence in US children. Ingestion of acidic substances can increase the rate of iron absorption. This randomized controlled trial found that iron absorption from food was similar whether children drank apple juice or orange juice. Thus, a preference for apple juice does not appear to pose a concern for iron deficiency.

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Predictors and Tracking of Body Mass Index From Adolescence Into Adulthood: Follow-up of 18 to 20 Years in the Oslo Youth Study

The Oslo Youth Study has continuously followed a cohort of individuals from elementary school into adulthood. In this article, Kvaavik and colleagues tracked body mass index (calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared) from ages 15 to 33 years. The risk of being overweight as an adult was 93% lower in individuals who were in the lowest quartile for body mass index at age 15 years compared with those in the highest. The risk of being obese was 98% lower in this group. In addition, the level of leisure time physical activity as an adolescent and how it changed as an adult was a strong predictor of adult weight. This study lends more support to the premise that the risk of adult obesity depends on adolescent weight and physical activity.

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Predicting Adoption of Home Smoking Restriction by Inner-city Black Smokers

More than 85% of adult smokers begin smoking by age 18 years. Restrictions on smoking in the workplace can affect smoking prevalence. Home smoking restriction also has the potential to eliminate environmental tobacco smoke as well as the prevalence of smoking. This study sought to identify predictors of future home-smoking restriction by surveying adult smokers who were interested in quitting. Adopting home smoking restriction was associated with a 4-fold increase in the likelihood of progressing to smoking cessation and was more common among those with a nonsmoking partner and children in the home. Advocating for home smoking restriction may lead to an improvement in smoking cessation rates.

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The Incidence of Pain in Children With Severe Cognitive Impairments

Whereas physicians have become increasingly sensitive to controlling pain in children, the awareness of pain in children with severe cognitive impairments is often limited. During the course of a year, Breau and colleagues periodically surveyed caregivers of 94 children with severe cognitive impairments. More than three quarters of the children reportedly experienced pain at least once a month, most commonly due to accidental trauma. In any 1 week, one third to one half of the children experienced pain, and those with the fewest abilities experienced the most pain. As the survival rates of these children increase, the need for improved quality of care is compelling.

Table 4. 
Mean Number of Days With Pain and Mean Time Spent With Pain per Week*
Mean Number of Days With Pain and Mean Time Spent With Pain per Week*

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