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This Month in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
December 2007

This Month in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(12):1121. doi:10.1001/archpedi.161.12.1121
Effect of Honey on Nocturnal Cough and Sleep Quality in Children

There is increasing concern about the use of over-the-counter medications to treat symptoms of upper respiratory infections (URIs) in young children. This study randomized 130 children aged 2 to 18 years with cough due to URIs to receive either dextromethorphan, buckwheat honey, or placebo before going to sleep. Honey provided the greatest relief in cough symptoms, and both children and their parents in this group slept better compared with the other groups. Buckwheat honey, but not dextromethorphan, was better than no treatment in relieving nocturnal symptoms associated with URIs.

Figure.
Comparison of the effect of honey, dextromethorphan (DM), and no treatment on the combined symptom score.

Comparison of the effect of honey, dextromethorphan (DM), and no treatment on the combined symptom score.

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Hepatitis B Vaccination and the Risk of Childhood-Onset Multiple Sclerosis

There have been conflicting reports on the association of hepatitis B vaccination and risk of multiple sclerosis. This study compared 143 patients who had their first episode of multiple sclerosis before age 16 years with 1122 controls. Hepatitis B vaccination any time since birth was not associated with a significant increase in the risk of a first episode of multiple sclerosis nor was the number of doses or the brand of vaccination.

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Efficacy of a Parent-Based Youth Sexual Risk Prevention Program

Despite many years of intervention programs, adolescents continue to engage in high-risk sexual activity. In this randomized controlled trial, parents of 9- to 12-year-old children were randomized to a single- or 5-session communication intervention focusing on risk awareness, parenting practices, and communication with their children about sexual practices. At the 12-month follow-up, children whose parents were in the 5-session group were one-third less likely to have sexual risk than those in the single-session or control groups. This study suggests that direct intervention with parents may be successful in preventing high-risk sexual activity in preadolescents.

Figure.
A, Intent-to-treat preadolescents in each intervention of the Parents Matter! Program study who were at sexual risk at the 12-month follow-up (having had or anticipating having sexual intercourse during the next year). B, Preadolescents whose parent attended all 5 enhanced sessions, the 1 single session, or the 1 control session.

A, Intent-to-treat preadolescents in each intervention of the Parents Matter! Program study who were at sexual risk at the 12-month follow-up (having had or anticipating having sexual intercourse during the next year). B, Preadolescents whose parent attended all 5 enhanced sessions, the 1 single session, or the 1 control session.

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Persistence and Remission in Childhood Asthma

This study used a longitudinal cohort design in which children with asthma were observed for 6 years to investigate the occurrence of persistence and remission of asthma during childhood. Among the 34 216 children with asthma before age 6 years, half had persistent asthma. Children with asthma diagnosed during a hospital admission had a significantly higher likelihood of asthma hospitalization during the 6-year follow-up period. Being male, being diagnosed with asthma between 2 and 5 years of age, having atopy, and living in urban areas were associated with having persistent asthma. This study points to the need for close follow-up and patient and family education after the initial diagnosis of asthma in preschool children.

Figure.
Cumulative asthma hospitalization rates in children with asthma. Hospitalization rates were calculated based on the Kaplan-Meier survival estimates.

Cumulative asthma hospitalization rates in children with asthma. Hospitalization rates were calculated based on the Kaplan-Meier survival estimates.

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