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January 2017 - January 1911

Decade

Year

Issue

February 7, 2011, Vol 165, No. 2, Pages 99-188

Editorial

The Promise of Maternal Vaccination to Prevent Influenza in Young Infants

Abstract Full Text
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):179-180. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.193

Conflict of InterestWhen Media Conglomerates Rate Their Productions

Abstract Full Text
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):181-182. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.283
Review Article

Management of the Transgender Adolescent

Abstract Full Text
free access
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):171-176. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.275
This Month in Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine

This Month in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

Abstract Full Text
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):101-101. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.284
Commentary

Pediatrics, Public Health, and Infant Mortality in the Early 20th Century

Abstract Full Text
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):102-103. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.280
Article

Maternal Influenza Vaccination and Effect on Influenza Virus Infection in Young Infants

Abstract Full Text
free access
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):104-111. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.192
ObjectiveTo assess the effect of seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy on laboratory-confirmed influenza in infants to 6 months of age.DesignNonrandomized, prospective, observational cohort study.SettingNavajo and White Mountain Apache Indian reservations, including 6 hospitals on the Navajo reservation and 1 on the White Mountain Apache reservation.ParticipantsA total of 1169 mother-infant pairs with mothers who delivered an infant during 1 of 3 influenza seasons.Main ExposureMaternal seasonal influenza vaccination.Main Outcome MeasuresIn infants, laboratory-confirmed influenza, influenzalike illness (ILI), ILI hospitalization, and influenza hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers.ResultsA total of 1160 mother-infant pairs had serum collected and were included in the analysis. Among infants, 193 (17%) had an ILI hospitalization, 412 (36%) had only an ILI outpatient visit, and 555 (48%) had no ILI episodes. The ILI incidence rate was 7.2 and 6.7 per 1000 person-days for infants born to unvaccinated and vaccinated women, respectively. There was a 41% reduction in the risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection (relative risk, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.93) and a 39% reduction in the risk of ILI hospitalization (relative risk, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.84) for infants born to influenza-vaccinated women compared with infants born to unvaccinated mothers. Infants born to influenza-vaccinated women had significantly higher hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers at birth and at 2 to 3 months of age than infants of unvaccinated mothers for all 8 influenza virus strains investigated.ConclusionsMaternal influenza vaccination was significantly associated with reduced risk of influenza virus infection and hospitalization for an ILI up to 6 months of age and increased influenza antibody titers in infants through 2 to 3 months of age.

Error in Expansion of NOURISH Trial Acronym in: Interventions Aimed at Decreasing Obesity in Children Younger Than 2 Years: A Systematic Review

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):111-111. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.297

Effects of Adverse Events on the Projected Population Benefits and Cost-effectiveness of Using Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Children Aged 6 Months to 4 Years

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):112-118. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.182
ObjectiveTo evaluate the effect of adverse events associated with live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in children younger than 5 years on the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination.DesignA decision analytic model was developed to predict costs and health effects of no vaccination, vaccination with LAIV, and vaccination with inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV). Probabilities, costs, and quality adjustments for uncomplicated influenza, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, deaths, vaccination, and vaccine adverse events were based on primary and published data. The analysis included the possible increased incidence of adverse events following vaccination with LAIV for children younger than 5 years, including fever, wheezing, and hospitalization. A societal perspective was used. Sensitivity analyses, including probabilistic sensitivity analysis, were conducted.SettingVaccination in the physician office setting in the United States.ParticipantsHypothetical cohorts of healthy children aged 6 months to 4 years.InterventionVaccination with LAIV or IIV.Main Outcome MeasureIncremental cost-effectiveness ratio in dollars per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY).ResultsCost-effectiveness ratios ranged from $20 000/QALY (age 6-23 months) to $33 000/QALY (age 3-4 years) for LAIV and from $21 000/QALY to $37 000/QALY for IIV for healthy children aged 6 months to 4 years. Inclusion of possible new adverse events for LAIV had varying effects on cost-effectiveness results. Results were not sensitive to the inclusion of wheezing as an adverse event but were sensitive to a possible increase in the probability of hospitalization.ConclusionLive attenuated influenza vaccine had comparable cost-effectiveness compared with IIV for children younger than 5 years under a wide range of assumptions about the incidence of adverse events.

Error in Text in: Hour-Specific Bilirubin Nomogram in Infants With ABO Incompatibility and Direct Coombs-Positive Results

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):118-118. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.291

Relationship Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Social Function of Wisconsin 2- and 3-Year-Olds Born at Very Low Birth Weight

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):119-125. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.185
ObjectiveTo examine whether (1) neighborhood disadvantage is associated with social function in 2- and 3-year-olds born at very low birth weight (<1500 g) and (2) the association between social function and child's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is moderated by neighborhood disadvantage.DesignCross-sectional study using the Newborn Lung Project, a cohort of infants born at very low birth weight in 2003 and 2004 in Wisconsin.SettingWisconsin.ParticipantsThis study includes the subgroup of 626 non-Hispanic black or white infants who were followed up at ages 24 to 43 months with parent-reported health and developmental information.Main ExposureAn index of neighborhood disadvantage was derived by principal component analysis of 5 census tract variables (percentage of families in poverty, percentage of households with income higher than the state median, percentage of women with bachelor's degree or more, percentage of single mothers, and percentage of mothers of young children unemployed). Children were then classified (based on index tertiles) as living in either disadvantaged, middle advantage, or advantaged neighborhoods. Children's HRQoL was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory.Main Outcome MeasureSocial function was measured using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory.ResultsAdjusting for child medical and family socioeconomic attributes, social function was lower (mean difference, −4.60; 95% confidence interval, −8.4 to −0.8) for children living in disadvantaged vs advantaged neighborhoods. We also found that the ill effects of lower HRQoL are particularly bad for children living in a disadvantaged neighborhood.ConclusionChildren born at very low birth weight have disparities in social function at ages 2 and 3 years that are associated with both HRQoL and neighborhood characteristics.

The Limit of ViabilityA Single Regional Unit's Experience

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):126-133. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.285

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Children With Hemifacial Microsomia

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):134-140. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.271

Post–High School Service Use Among Young Adults With an Autism Spectrum Disorder

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):141-146. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.279

Depictions of Tobacco Use in 2007 Broadcast Television Programming Popular Among US Youth

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):147-151. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.276

Cultural and Gender Convergence in Adolescent DrunkennessEvidence From 23 European and North American Countries

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):152-158. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.191
ObjectiveTo investigate time-trend changes in the frequency of drunkenness among European and North American adolescents.DesignCross-sectional surveys in the 1997/1998 and 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC).SettingHigh schools in 23 countries.ParticipantsA sample of 77 586 adolescents aged 15 years was analyzed by means of hierarchical linear modeling.Main Outcome MeasureThe frequency of drunkenness.ResultsWe observed a significant increase of about 40% in the mean frequency of drunkenness in all 7 participating Eastern European countries. This increase was evident among both genders, but most consistently among girls. Meanwhile, it declined in 13 of 16 Western countries, about 25% on average. Declines in Western countries were particularly notable among boys and in North America, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. Despite this gender convergence, with few exceptions (Greenland, Norway, United Kingdom) boys continued to have a higher frequency of drunkenness in 2005/2006 than girls.ConclusionsThe confirmed cultural convergence implies that adoption and implementation of evidence-based measures to mitigate the frequency of adolescent drunkenness such as tax increases and restricting alcohol access and advertisement should get the same priority in Eastern European countries as in Western countries. Policy measures that might facilitate decreases in drunkenness such as server training and the promotion of alcohol-free leisure-time activities should be reinforced in Western countries. The gender convergence implies that prevention policy should be less exclusively focused on male adolescents.

Health Outcomes and Family Services in Kinship CareAnalysis of a National Sample of Children in the Child Welfare System

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):159-165. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.277

Impact of the American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Screening Electrocardiograms and Stimulant Medications

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):166-170. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.278
Special Feature

Picture of the Month—Quiz Case

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):177-178. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.281-a

Picture of the Month—Diagnosis

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):177-178. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.281-b
Book Reviews and Other Media

Violence in the Lives of Inner-City Youth in the United States

Abstract Full Text
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):183-184. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.288
Advice for Patients

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth

Abstract Full Text
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):188-188. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.293
About the Cover

Nurses weighing baby at the Cincinnati pure milk station, circa 1908

Abstract Full Text
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(2):99-99. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.286
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