Art and Images in Psychiatry
June 2014

The Head of MedusaPeter Paul Rubens and Frans Snyders

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Neuropsychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

Copyright 2014 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Applicable FARS/DFARS Restrictions Apply to Government Use.

JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(6):614-615. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2735

Neptune, lord of the seas, violated Medusa in the temple of Minerva. Jupiter’s daughter turned away, and hid her chaste eyes behind her aegis. So that it might not go unpunished, she changed the Gorgon’s hair to foul snakes.

Ovid, Metamorphoses1(bk IV:753-803)

Medusa, a proud vestal virgin with long beautiful hair, was raped by Neptune in the Parthenon sanctuary of the Temple of Minerva (Athena), the virgin goddess of wisdom (epigraph). Because the rape defiled a holy site (and possibly, too, because of Medusa’s irritating claim that her beauty exceeded that of Minerva), the virgin goddess turned Medusa’s hair into foul snakes. Any man who looked upon Medusa would be turned to stone. Medusa’s assailant, Neptune, who was Minerva’s uncle and the god of the sea, escaped unharmed but saw how Medusa was further brutalized following his lustful attack. We do not know if he suffered remorse or ever dared to look toward her face again. Nor do we know what role Medusa’s pride in her beauty played in Minerva’s lesson that mortal beauty decays with time. However, in the patriarchy of those times, women were blamed when they were raped, and, unfortunately, they sometimes still are today.

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